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Alshawaf F, Fersch B, Hinz S, Kunstmann H, Mayer M and Meyer FJ (2015), "Water vapor mapping by fusing InSAR and GNSS remote sensing data and atmospheric simulations", Hydrology and Earth System Sciences., jan, 2015. Vol. 19(12), pp. 4747-4764. Copernicus GmbH.
Abstract:

Data fusion aims at integrating multiple data sources that can be redundant or complementary to produce complete, accurate information of the parameter of interest. In this work, data fusion of precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimated from remote sensing observations and data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system is applied to provide complete, accurate grids of PWV. Our goal is to infer spatially continuous, precise grids of PWV from heterogeneous data sets. This is done by a geostatistical data fusion approach based on the method of fixed-rank kriging. The first data set contains absolute maps of atmospheric water vapor produced by combining observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). These PWV maps have a high spatial density and an accuracy of submillimeter; however, data are missing in regions of low coherence (e.g., forests and vegetated areas). The PWV maps simulated by the WRF model represent the second data set. The model maps are available for wide areas, but they have a coarse spatial resolution and a yet limited accuracy. The PWV maps inferred by the data fusion at any spatial resolution are more accurate than those inferred from single data sets. In addition, using the fixed-rank kriging method, the computational burden is significantly lower than that for ordinary kriging.

BibTeX:
@article{AlshawafFerschHinzEtAl2015,
  author = {Alshawaf, F. and Fersch, B. and Hinz, S. and Kunstmann, H. and Mayer, M. and Meyer, F. J.},
  title = {Water vapor mapping by fusing InSAR and GNSS remote sensing data and atmospheric simulations},
  journal = {Hydrology and Earth System Sciences},
  publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {19},
  number = {12},
  pages = {4747--4764},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hessd-12-363-2015 http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/12/363/2015/},
  doi = {10.5194/hess-19-4747-2015}
}
Alshawaf F, Fuhrmann T, Heck B, Hinz S, Knoepfler A, Luo X, Mayer M, Schenk A, Thiele A and Westerhaus M (2012), "Atmospheric Water Vapour Determination by the Integration of InSAR and GNSS Observation", In Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography., nov, 2012. Vol. 2011(January), pp. 19-23. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Alshawaf_2012,
  author = {Alshawaf, Fadwa and Fuhrmann, Thomas and Heck, Bernhard and Hinz, Stefan and Knoepfler, Andreas and Luo, Xiaoguang and Mayer, Michael and Schenk, Andreas and Thiele, Antje and Westerhaus, Malte},
  title = {Atmospheric Water Vapour Determination by the Integration of InSAR and GNSS Observation},
  booktitle = {Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {2011},
  number = {January},
  pages = {19--23},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32714-8_10},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-32714-8_10}
}
Alshawaf F, Fuhrmann T, Kn??pfler A, Luo X, Mayer M, Hinz S and Heck B (2015), "Accurate Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapor Using GNSS Observations and Surface Meteorological Data", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing., jul, 2015. Vol. 53(7), pp. 3764-3771. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
BibTeX:
@article{AlshawafFuhrmannKn??pflerEtAl2015,
  author = {Alshawaf, F. and Fuhrmann, T. and Kn??pfler, A. and Luo, X. and Mayer, M. and Hinz, S. and Heck, B.},
  title = {Accurate Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapor Using GNSS Observations and Surface Meteorological Data},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {53},
  number = {7},
  pages = {3764--3771},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2014.2382713},
  doi = {10.1109/TGRS.2014.2382713}
}
Alshawaf F, Fuhrmann T, Kn??pfler A, Luo X, Mayer M, Hinz S and Heck B (2015), "Accurate Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapor Using GNSS Observations and Surface Meteorological Data", IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing., jul, 2015. Vol. 53(7), pp. 3764-3771. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
BibTeX:
@article{AlshawafFuhrmannKn??pflerEtAl2015a,
  author = {Alshawaf, F. and Fuhrmann, T. and Kn??pfler, A. and Luo, X. and Mayer, M. and Hinz, S. and Heck, B.},
  title = {Accurate Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapor Using GNSS Observations and Surface Meteorological Data},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {53},
  number = {7},
  pages = {3764--3771},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2014.2382713},
  doi = {10.1109/TGRS.2014.2382713}
}
Alshawaf F, Hinz S, Mayer M and Meyer FJ (2015), "Constructing accurate maps of atmospheric water vapor by combining interferometric synthetic aperture radar and GNSS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres., feb, 2015. Vol. 120(4), pp. 1391-1403. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: Over the past 20years, repeat-pass spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been widely used as a geodetic technique to generate maps of the Earth's topography and to measure the Earth's surface deformation. In this paper, we present a new approach to exploit microwave data from InSAR, particularly Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI), and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to derive maps of the absolute water vapor content in the Earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric water vapor results in a phase shift in the InSAR interferogram, which if successfully separated from other phase components provides valuable information about its distribution. PSI produces precipitable water vapor (PWV) difference maps of a high spatial density, which can be inverted using the least squares method to retrieve PWV maps at each SAR acquisition time. These maps do not contain the absolute (total) PWV along the signal path but only a part of it. The components eliminated by forming interferograms or phase filtering during PSI data processing are reconstructed using GNSS phase observations. The approach is applied to build maps of absolute PWV by combining data from InSAR and GNSS over the region of Upper Rhine Graben in Germany and France. For validation, we compared the derived PWV maps with PWV maps measured by the optical sensor MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The results show strong spatial correlation with values of uncertainty of less than 1.5mm. Continuous grids of PWV are then produced by applying the kriging geostatistical interpolation technique that exploits the spatial correlations between the PWV observations.
BibTeX:
@article{Alshawaf_2015,
  author = {Alshawaf, Fadwa and Hinz, Stefan and Mayer, Michael and Meyer, Franz J.},
  title = {Constructing accurate maps of atmospheric water vapor by combining interferometric synthetic aperture radar and GNSS observations},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {120},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1391--1403},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014jd022419},
  doi = {10.1002/2014JD022419}
}
Altamimi Z, Collilieux X and Métivier L (2011), "ITRF2008: An improved solution of the international terrestrial reference frame", Journal of Geodesy., feb, 2011. Vol. 85(8), pp. 457-473. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: ITRF2008 is a refined version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame based on reprocessed solutions of the four space geodetic techniques: VLBI, SLR, GPS and DORIS, spanning 29, 26, 12.5 and 16 years of observations, respectively. The input data used in its elaboration are time series (weekly from satellite techniques and 24-h session-wise from VLBI) of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). The ITRF2008 origin is defined in such a way that it has zero translations and translation rates with respect to the mean Earth center of mass, averaged by the SLR time series. Its scale is defined by nullifying the scale factor and its rate with respect to the mean of VLBI and SLR long-term solutions as obtained by stacking their respective time series. The scale agreement between these two technique solutions is estimated to be 1.05 ± 0.13 ppb at epoch 2005.0 and 0.049 ± 0.010 ppb/yr. The ITRF2008 orientation (at epoch 2005.0) and its rate are aligned to the ITRF2005 using 179 stations of high geodetic quality. An estimate of the origin components from ITRF2008 to ITRF2005 (both origins are defined by SLR) indicates differences at epoch 2005.0, namely: −0.5, −0.9 and −4.7 mm along X , Y and Z -axis, respectively. The translation rate differences between the two frames are zero for Y and Z , while we observe an X -translation rate of 0.3 mm/yr. The estimated formal errors of these parameters are 0.2 mm and 0.2 mm/yr, respectively. The high level of origin agreement between ITRF2008 and ITRF2005 is an indication of an imprecise ITRF2000 origin that exhibits a Z -translation drift of 1.8 mm/yr with respect to ITRF2005. An evaluation of the ITRF2008 origin accuracy based on the level of its agreement with ITRF2005 is believed to be at the level of 1 cm over the time-span of the SLR observations. Considering the level of scale consistency between VLBI and SLR, the ITRF2008 scale accuracy is evaluated to be at the level of 1.2 ppb (8 mm at the equator) over the common time-span of the observations of both techniques. Although the performance of the ITRF2008 is demonstrated to be higher than ITRF2005, future ITRF improvement resides in improving the consistency between local ties in co-location sites and space geodesy estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Altamimi_2011,
  author = {Altamimi, Zuheir and Collilieux, Xavier and Métivier, Laurent},
  title = {ITRF2008: An improved solution of the international terrestrial reference frame},
  journal = {Journal of Geodesy},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {85},
  number = {8},
  pages = {457--473},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00190-011-0444-4},
  doi = {10.1007/s00190-011-0444-4}
}
Asensio E, Khazaradze G, Echeverria A, King RW and Vilajosana I (2012), "GPS studies of active deformation in the Pyrenees", Geophysical Journal International., may, 2012. Vol. 190(2), pp. 913-921. Oxford University Press (OUP).
Abstract: The Pyrenees mountain belt, which separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of the European continent, is part of the Alpine–Himalayan orogenic belt, formed as a result of a collision between the African and Eurasian Plates. Although the instrumental seismicity in the Pyrenees is moderate, in the past centuries a number of destructive earthquakes have occurred, which could indicate continuing tectonic activity of the area. We analyse GPS observations spanning 3.5 yr from 35 continuous stations in the Pyrenees region and find significant on-going extension perpendicular to the range at 2.5 ± 0.5 nstrain yr–1, with the possibility of higher strain rates concentrated in the westernmost part of the range. This finding is in agreement with the predominantly normal faulting focal mechanisms of earthquakes that occur in the area and suggests a recurrence time for magnitude 6.5 earthquakes of 2200–2500 yr.
BibTeX:
@article{Asensio_2012,
  author = {Asensio, E. and Khazaradze, G. and Echeverria, A. and King, R. W. and Vilajosana, I.},
  title = {GPS studies of active deformation in the Pyrenees},
  journal = {Geophysical Journal International},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {190},
  number = {2},
  pages = {913--921},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x.2012.05525.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05525.x}
}
Baize S, Cushing EM, Lemeille F and Jomard H (2013), "Updated seismotectonic zoning scheme of Metropolitan France, with reference to geologic and seismotectonic data", Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France., mar, 2013. Vol. 184(3), pp. 225-259. GeoScienceWorld.
Abstract: This work presents the seismotectonic zoning scheme of Metropolitan France developed by the IRSN (French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety) within the framework of its seismic hazard assessment activities. It is the outcome of many years of work following the publication of the “seismotectonic atlas” in 1993 [Grellet et al., 1993].This scheme supports the assessment of seismic hazard by IRSN. It takes into account the most recent data concerning the deep and surface geology, as well as those related to seismotectonics and tectonic activity. It finally includes 67 surface seismotectonic zones (STZ), as well as a catalogue of 74 faults or structures (named hereafter “potential active faults”) for which indications of Neogene to Quaternary displacement can be inferred. The description of the zoning scheme comes along with an estimation of the uncertainty on the boundary location between adjacent STZ. We also qualitatively determine a “relevance order” for each limit, so as to illustrate their reliability to separate regions of different seismogenic potential. Also, we attributed to the faults an indication whose purpose is to reflect the recent character of their activity, and thus their seismotectonic potential.This assessment of uncertainties was undertaken to better integrate the zoning scheme in the general approach, which arises from recent studies, namely the propagation of the uncertainties in seismic hazard evaluation, whether deterministic or probabilistic.
BibTeX:
@article{Baize_2013,
  author = {Baize, Stéphane and Cushing, Edward Marc and Lemeille, Francis and Jomard, Hervé},
  title = {Updated seismotectonic zoning scheme of Metropolitan France, with reference to geologic and seismotectonic data},
  journal = {Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France},
  publisher = {GeoScienceWorld},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {184},
  number = {3},
  pages = {225--259},
  url = {http://bsgf.geoscienceworld.org/content/184/3/225.abstract},
  doi = {10.2113/gssgfbull.184.3.225}
}
Barani S, Scafidi D and Eva C (2010), "Strain rates in northwestern Italy from spatially smoothed seismicity", Journal of Geophysical Research., jul, 2010. Vol. 115(B7), pp. 1-16. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: This work presents seismic strain rate maps for the Western Alps and Northern Apennines (northern Italy) as derived from an earthquake catalog collecting both historical and instrumental data. Strain rates are calculated on the basis of the rate of seismic moment release using the Anderson method. Unlike previous applications, which determined the total strain rate associated with specific seismogenic sources, we have employed an innovative zoneless approach based on a spatially smoothed seismicity method. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation procedure is applied to allow for uncertainty in the input data (e.g., magnitude to moment conversion, seismogenic thickness, maximum earthquake magnitude). Strain rate maps are developed by summing the moments of the earthquakes reported in the catalog and by using two different earthquake recurrence relations. Our results indicate that deformation rates are quite high, ranging from about 2 to 12 × 10&8722;9 yr&8722;1 in the Northern Apennines and from 0.5 to 6 × 10&8722;9 yr&8722;1 in the Western Alps. These values, however, are &8764;1 order less than those derived from Global Positioning System measurements, suggesting that a portion of the recent deformation in northwestern Italy is related to aseismic processes. The discrepancies between seismic and geodetic strain rates may also indicate that the record of seismicity may not provide a sufficient time window for assessment of secular rates of moment release (or secular deformation rates) and rates of recurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in the study area.
BibTeX:
@article{Barani_2010,
  author = {Barani, Simone and Scafidi, Davide and Eva, Claudio},
  title = {Strain rates in northwestern Italy from spatially smoothed seismicity},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {115},
  number = {B7},
  pages = {1--16},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009jb006637},
  doi = {10.1029/2009JB006637}
}
Barba S, Carafa MMC, Mariucci MT, Montone P and Pierdominici S (2010), "Present-day stress-field modelling of southern Italy constrained by stress and GPS data", Tectonophysics., feb, 2010. Vol. 482(1-4), pp. 193-204. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: The present-day tectonic setting of the Italian peninsula is very complex and involves competing geodynamic processes. In this context, southern peninsular Italy is characterised by extension along the Apenninic belt and in the Tyrrhenian margin and by transpression in the Apulia-Gargano region. The extension is well defined by means of geological, seismological, and contemporary stress data. For the latter only few data are available in the Apulia-Gargano region, leaving the state of stress in that area unresolved. Here we develop a finite-element model of the southern Italian region in order to predict the contemporary stress field. Our model predictions are constrained by model-independent observations of the orientation of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax), the tectonic regime, and the horizontal velocities derived from GPS observations. We performed a blind test with 31 newly acquired SHmax orientations in the Southern Apennines. These new data come from the analysis of orehole breakouts performed in 46 deep oil exploration wells ranging in depth from 1300 to 5500 m. The model results agree with the stress data that define a prevailing NW-SE SHmax orientation along the Apenninic belt and foredeep and thus are capable to predict the stress field where no stress information is available. We first analyse how much model predictions, based on older data, deviate from present-day stress data and then recalibrate the models based on our new stress data, giving insight into the resolution of both models and data. In the studied region, which is affected by low deformation rates, we find that geodetic data alone cannot resolve such low levels of deformation due to the high relative measurement errors. We conclude that both GPS and stress data are required to constrain model results. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Barba_2010,
  author = {Barba, Salvatore and Carafa, Michele M C and Mariucci, Maria Teresa and Montone, Paola and Pierdominici, Simona},
  title = {Present-day stress-field modelling of southern Italy constrained by stress and GPS data},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {482},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {193--204},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.10.017},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2009.10.017}
}
Bennitt GV and Jupp A (2012), "Operational Assimilation of GPS Zenith Total Delay Observations into the Met Office Numerical Weather Prediction Models", $Mwr., aug, 2012. Vol. 140(8), pp. 2271-2706. American Meteorological Society.
BibTeX:
@article{Bennitt_2012,
  author = {Bennitt, Gemma V and Jupp, Adrian},
  title = {Operational Assimilation of GPS Zenith Total Delay Observations into the Met Office Numerical Weather Prediction Models},
  journal = {$Mwr},
  publisher = {American Meteorological Society},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {140},
  number = {8},
  pages = {2271--2706},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/mwr-d-11-00156.1},
  doi = {10.1175/MWR-D-11-00156.1.}
}
Biessy G, Moreau F, Dauteuil O and Bour O (2011), "Surface deformation of an intraplate area from GPS time series", Journal of Geodynamics., jul, 2011. Vol. 52(1), pp. 24-33. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the processes that lead to the ground surface deformation above the fractured crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (French Brittany). We conducted a four-year continuous GPS data survey in order to extract the hydrogeological contribution due to the variations of the hydraulic head of the confined aquifer. The GPS configuration used in this study, with a differential setup, short baselines and adapted processing parameters, may have removed tide effects, ocean tide loading and tectonics trends. We checked in particular the case of ocean tide loading because of its important contribution in Brittany. Time series calculated with GAMIT software indicate a seasonal deformation on both vertical direction (up to 16. mm of displacement) and horizontal plane (from 3 to 12. mm of displacement) that provide a 3D motion. This sub-annual deformation is induced by variations of the hydraulic head of the aquifer and depends on its 3D hydromechanical properties. However, an offset between ground uplift and piezometric rise could not be explained by pressure variations into the deep aquifer and was linked to the variations of the hydrous state of the ground. This GPS study highlights that the hydrogeological and hydrological processes act significantly on ground motion and should be integrated in any Earth deformation survey. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Biessy_2011,
  author = {Biessy, G. and Moreau, F. and Dauteuil, O. and Bour, O.},
  title = {Surface deformation of an intraplate area from GPS time series},
  journal = {Journal of Geodynamics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {52},
  number = {1},
  pages = {24--33},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2010.11.005},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jog.2010.11.005}
}
Bock O, Bosser P, Pacione R, Nuret M and Fourrié N (2015), "A high quality reprocessed ground-based GPS dataset for atmospheric process studies , radiosonde and model evaluation , and reanalysis of HYMEX Special Observing Period", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., nov, 2015. Vol. 17, pp. 5459. Wiley-Blackwell.
BibTeX:
@article{Bock_2015,
  author = {Bock, Olivier and Bosser, Pierre and Pacione, Rosa and Nuret, Mathieu and Fourrié, Nadia},
  title = {A high quality reprocessed ground-based GPS dataset for atmospheric process studies , radiosonde and model evaluation , and reanalysis of HYMEX Special Observing Period},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {5459},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.2701},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.2701}
}
Boniface K, Champollion C, Chery J, Ducrocq V, Rocken C, Doerflinger E and Collard P (2012), "Potential of shipborne GPS atmospheric delay data for prediction of Mediterranean intense weather events", Atmospheric Science Letters., jun, 2012. Vol. 13(4), pp. 250-256. Wiley-Blackwell.
BibTeX:
@article{Boniface_2012,
  author = {Boniface, K. and Champollion, C. and Chery, J. and Ducrocq, V. and Rocken, C. and Doerflinger, E. and Collard, P.},
  title = {Potential of shipborne GPS atmospheric delay data for prediction of Mediterranean intense weather events},
  journal = {Atmospheric Science Letters},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {13},
  number = {4},
  pages = {250--256},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asl.391},
  doi = {10.1002/asl.391}
}
Boniface K, Ducrocq V, Jaubert G, Yan X, Brousseau P, Masson F, Champollion C, Chéry J and Doerflinger E (2009), "Impact of high-resolution data assimilation of GPS zenith delay on Mediterranean heavy rainfall forecasting", Annales Geophysicae., jul, 2009. Vol. 27(7), pp. 2739-2753. Copernicus GmbH.
Abstract: Impact of GPS (Global Positioning System) data assimilation is assessed here using a high-resolution numerical weather prediction system at 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) GPS data from mesoscale networks are assimilated with the 3DVAR AROME data assimilation scheme. Data from more than 280 stations over the model domain have been assimilated during 15-day long assimilation cycles prior each of the two studied events. The results of these assimilation cycles show that the assimilation of GPS ZTD with the AROME system performs well in producing analyses closer to the ZTD observations in average. Then the impacts of assimilating GPS data on the precipitation forecast have been evaluated. For the first case, only the AROME runs starting a few hours prior the triggering of the convective system are able to simulate the convective precipitation. The assimilation of GPS ZTD observations improves the simulation of the spatial extent of the precipitation, but slightly underestimates the heaviest precipitation in that case compared with the experiment without GPS. The accuracy of the precipitation forecast for the second case is much better. The analyses from the control assimilation cycle provide already a good description of the atmosphere state that cannot be further improved by the assimilation of GPS observations. Only for the latest day (22 November 2007), significant differences have been found between the two parallel cycles. In that case, the assimilation of GPS ZTD allows to improve the first 6 to 12 h of the precipitation forecast.
BibTeX:
@article{Boniface_2009,
  author = {Boniface, K. and Ducrocq, V. and Jaubert, G. and Yan, X. and Brousseau, P. and Masson, F. and Champollion, C. and Chéry, J. and Doerflinger, E.},
  title = {Impact of high-resolution data assimilation of GPS zenith delay on Mediterranean heavy rainfall forecasting},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {27},
  number = {7},
  pages = {2739--2753},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-2739-2009},
  doi = {10.5194/angeo-27-2739-2009}
}
Boniface K, Ducrocq V, Jaubert G, Yan X, Brousseau P, Masson F, Champollion C, Chéry J and Doerflinger E (2009), "Impact of high-resolution data assimilation of GPS zenith delay on Mediterranean heavy rainfall forecasting", Annales Geophysicae., jul, 2009. Vol. 27(7), pp. 2739-2753. Copernicus GmbH.
Abstract: Impact of GPS (Global Positioning System) data assimilation is assessed here using a high-resolution numerical weather prediction system at 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) GPS data from mesoscale networks are assimilated with the 3DVAR AROME data assimilation scheme. Data from more than 280 stations over the model domain have been assimilated during 15-day long assimilation cycles prior each of the two studied events. The results of these assimilation cycles show that the assimilation of GPS ZTD with the AROME system performs well in producing analyses closer to the ZTD observations in average. Then the impacts of assimilating GPS data on the precipitation forecast have been evaluated. For the first case, only the AROME runs starting a few hours prior the triggering of the convective system are able to simulate the convective precipitation. The assimilation of GPS ZTD observations improves the simulation of the spatial extent of the precipitation, but slightly underestimates the heaviest precipitation in that case compared with the experiment without GPS. The accuracy of the precipitation forecast for the second case is much better. The analyses from the control assimilation cycle provide already a good description of the atmosphere state that cannot be further improved by the assimilation of GPS observations. Only for the latest day (22 November 2007), significant differences have been found between the two parallel cycles. In that case, the assimilation of GPS ZTD allows to improve the first 6 to 12 h of the precipitation forecast.
BibTeX:
@article{BonifaceDucrocqJaubertEtAl2009,
  author = {Boniface, K. and Ducrocq, V. and Jaubert, G. and Yan, X. and Brousseau, P. and Masson, F. and Champollion, C. and Chéry, J. and Doerflinger, E.},
  title = {Impact of high-resolution data assimilation of GPS zenith delay on Mediterranean heavy rainfall forecasting},
  journal = {Annales Geophysicae},
  publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {27},
  number = {7},
  pages = {2739--2753},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-2739-2009},
  doi = {10.5194/angeo-27-2739-2009}
}
Boniface K, Walpersdorf A, Guyomarc'h G, Deliot Y, Karbou F, Vionnet V and Nievinski F (2015), "GNSS reflectometry measurement of snow depth and soil moisture in the French Alps", In 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS). Vol. 1, pp. 5205-5207. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boniface_2015,
  author = {Boniface, K and Walpersdorf, A and Guyomarc'h, G. and Deliot, Y and Karbou, F and Vionnet, V and Nievinski, F},
  title = {GNSS reflectometry measurement of snow depth and soil moisture in the French Alps},
  booktitle = {2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS)},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {5205--5207},
  url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/lpdocs/epic03/wrapper.htm?arnumber=7327007},
  doi = {10.1109/IGARSS.2015.7327007}
}
Bosy J, Kontny B and Borkowski A (2009), "IGS/EPN reference frame realization in local GPS networks", In International Association of Geodesy Symposia. Vol. 134, pp. 197-203. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: The modern geodetic reference systems (e.g. ITRS) are realized by$nreference frames, i.e. a set of stations with position coordinates$nat a reference epoch and station velocities (e.g. ITRF2000). IGS$n(International GNSS Service) global network and EPN (EUREF Permanent$nNetwork) regional network stations are parametrized in this way.$nThe main IGS/EPN products (gained daily and weekly) are estimated$nstation coordinates and velocities, as well as orbits�?? and ionospheric$nand tropospheric parameters. The connection of local GPS networks$nwith IGS/EPN stations enables to use the above products. In this$npublication the method of EPN/IGS reference stations selection for$nthe purpose of local GPS networks is presented. Two approaches are$napplied: station velocity analysis and cluster analysis. It has also$nbeen suggested to process permanent and epoch observations in local$nGPS networks, which are based on IGS global networks and EPN regional$nnetworks�?? solutions jointly.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bosy_2009,
  author = {Bosy, J. and Kontny, B. and Borkowski, A.},
  title = {IGS/EPN reference frame realization in local GPS networks},
  booktitle = {International Association of Geodesy Symposia},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {134},
  pages = {197--203},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00860-3_31},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-00860-3_31}
}
Boudevillain B, Argence Sé, Claud C, Ducrocq Vé, Joly B, Joly A, Lambert D, Nuissier O, Plu M, Ricard D, Arbogast P, Berne A, Chaboureau J-P, Chapon B, Crepin F, Delrieu G, Doerflinger E, Funatsu B, Kirstetter P-E, Masson F, Maynard K, Richard E, Sanchez E, Terray L and Walpersdorf A (2009), "Projet Cyprim, partie I: Cyclogenèses et précipitations intenses en région méditerranéenne: origines et caractéristiques", La Météorologie. Vol. 66(66), pp. 18-28. INIST-CNRS.
Abstract: Le premier volet du projet Cyprim vise à mieux identifier les précurseurs des cyclogenèses et des précipitations intenses en région méditerranéenne. Cet article en présente les principaux résultats. Il est question des ingrédients météorologiques à l'origine de ces systèmes, de la grande à la mésoéchelle, des causes des fortes intensités, localisations et parfois stationnarité des récipitations associées. Le coeur de l'article présente des méthodes d'identification des anomalies de tourbillon potentiel liées à l'occurrence d'événements précipitants intenses et dresse une climatologie de ces anomalies. Les perspectives d'exploitation de cette information pour améliorer la qualité des prévisions sont évoquées. The first part of the CYPRIM project (Cyclogenesis and intense precipitations in the Mediterranean region) aims at a better identification of the precursor structures of cyclogenesis and heavy precipitation in the Mediterranean region. This article presents the main results. It mentions the meteorological ingredients from which these systems originate from the large to themesoscale, the reasons for large intensities, the localization and sometimes stationarity of the associated precipitations. The heart of the article shows methods for identifiying potential vorticity anomalies involved in the occurrence of heavy precipitation events and sets up a climatology of these anomalies.The perspectives of the usefulness of this information for improving forecast quality are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Boudevillain_2009,
  author = {Boudevillain, Brice and Argence, Sébastien and Claud, Chantal and Ducrocq, Véronique and Joly, Bruno and Joly, Alain and Lambert, Dominique and Nuissier, Olivier and Plu, Matthieu and Ricard, Didier and Arbogast, Philippe and Berne, Alexis and Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre and Chapon, Benot and Crepin, Fabien and Delrieu, Guy and Doerflinger, Erik and Funatsu, Beatriz and Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel and Masson, Frederic and Maynard, Karine and Richard, Evelyne and Sanchez, Emilia and Terray, Laurent and Walpersdorf, Andrea},
  title = {Projet Cyprim, partie I: Cyclogenèses et précipitations intenses en région méditerranéenne: origines et caractéristiques},
  journal = {La Météorologie},
  publisher = {INIST-CNRS},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {66},
  number = {66},
  pages = {18--28},
  url = {http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/28828},
  doi = {10.4267/2042/28828}
}
Bouin MN and Wöppelmann G (2010), "Land motion estimates from GPS at tide gauges: A geophysical evaluation", Geophysical Journal International., jan, 2010. Vol. 180(1), pp. 193-209. Oxford University Press (OUP).
Abstract: Space geodesy applications have mainly been limited to horizontal deformations due to a number of restrictions on the vertical component accuracy. Monitoring vertical land motion is nonetheless of crucial interest in observations of long-term sea level change or postglacial rebound measurements. Here, we present a global vertical velocity field obtained with more than 200 permanent GPS stations, most of them colocated with tide gauges (TGs). We used a state of the art, homogeneous processing strategy to ensure that the reference frame was stable throughout the observation period of almost 10 yr. We associate realistic uncertainties to our vertical rates, taking into account the time-correlation noise in the time-series. The results are compared with two independent geophysical vertical velocity fields: (1) vertical velocity estimates using long-term TG records and (2) postglacial model predictions from the ICE-5G (VM2) adjustment. The quantitative agreement of the GPS vertical velocities with the ‘internal estimates’ of vertical displacements using the TG record is very good, with a mean difference of −0.13 ± 1.64 mm yr−1 on more than 100 sites. For 84 per cent of the GPS stations considered, the vertical velocity is confirmed by the TG estimate to within 2 mm yr−1. The overall agreement with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model is good, with discrepancy patterns related either to a local misfit of the model or to active tectonics. For 72 per cent of the sites considered, the predictions of the GIA model agree with the GPS results to within two standard deviations. Most of the GPS velocities showing discrepancies with respect to the predictions of the GIA model are, however, consistent with previously published space geodesy results. We, in turn, confirm the value of 1.8 ± 0.5 mm yr−1 for the 20th century average global sea level rise, and conclude that GPS is now a robust tool for vertical land motion monitoring which is accurate at least at 1 mm yr−1.
BibTeX:
@article{Bouin_2010,
  author = {Bouin, M. N. and Wöppelmann, G.},
  title = {Land motion estimates from GPS at tide gauges: A geophysical evaluation},
  journal = {Geophysical Journal International},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {180},
  number = {1},
  pages = {193--209},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x.2009.04411.x},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04411.x}
}
Brenot H, Walpersdorf A, Reverdy M, Van Baelen J, Ducrocq V, Champollion C, Masson F, Doerflinger E, Collard P and Giroux P (2014), "A GPS network for tropospheric tomography in the framework of the Mediterranean hydrometeorological observatory Cévennes-Vivarais (southeastern France)", Atmospheric Measurement Techniques., feb, 2014. Vol. 7(2), pp. 553-578. Copernicus GmbH.
Abstract: The Mediterranean hydrometeorological observatory Cévennes-Vivarais (OHM-CV) coordinates hydrometeorological observations (radars, rain gauges, water level stations) on a regional scale in South-Eastern France. In the framework of OHM-CV, temporary GPS measurements have been carried out for 2 months in autumn 2002, when the heaviest rainfall are expected. These measurements increase the spatial density of the existing permanent GPS network, by adding three more receivers between the Mediterranean coast and the Cévennes-Vivarais range to monitor maritime source of water vapour flow feeding the precipitating systems over the Cévennes-Vivarais region. In addition, a local network of 18 receivers covered an area of 30 by 30 km within the field of view of the meteorological radar. These regional and local networks of permanent and temporary stations are used to monitor the precipitable water vapour (PWV) with high temporal resolution (15 min). Also, the dense local network provided data which have been inversed using tomographic techniques to obtain the 3-D field of tro15 pospheric water vapour content. This study presents methodological tests for retrieving GPS tropospheric observations from dense networks, with the aim of assessing the uncertainties of GPS retrievals. Using the optimal tropospheric GPS retrieval methods, high resolution measurements of PWV on a local scale (a few kilometres) are discussed for rain events. Finally, the results of 3-D fields of water vapour densities from GPS tomography are analysed with respect to precipitation fields derived from a meteorological radar, showing a good correlation between precipitation and water vapour depletion areas. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
BibTeX:
@article{Brenot_2014,
  author = {Brenot, H. and Walpersdorf, A. and Reverdy, M. and Van Baelen, J. and Ducrocq, V. and Champollion, C. and Masson, F. and Doerflinger, E. and Collard, P. and Giroux, P.},
  title = {A GPS network for tropospheric tomography in the framework of the Mediterranean hydrometeorological observatory Cévennes-Vivarais (southeastern France)},
  journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques},
  publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {553--578},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/amt-7-553-2014},
  doi = {10.5194/amt-7-553-2014}
}
Bruyninx C, Altamimi Z, Becker M, Craymer M, Combrinck L, Combrink A, Dawson J, Dietrich R, Fernandes R, Govind R, Herring T, Kenyeres A, King R, Kreemer C, Lavallée D, Legrand J, Sánchez L, Sella G, Shen Z, Santamara-Gómez A and Wöppelmann G (2012), "A Dense Global Velocity Field Based on GNSS Observations: Preliminary Results", In International Association of Geodesy Symposia., jul, 2012. Vol. 136, pp. 19-26. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Bruyninx_2011,
  author = {Bruyninx, C. and Altamimi, Z. and Becker, M. and Craymer, M. and Combrinck, L. and Combrink, A. and Dawson, J. and Dietrich, R. and Fernandes, R. and Govind, R. and Herring, T. and Kenyeres, A. and King, R. and Kreemer, C. and Lavallée, D. and Legrand, J. and Sánchez, L. and Sella, G. and Shen, Z. and Santamara-Gómez, A. and Wöppelmann, G.},
  title = {A Dense Global Velocity Field Based on GNSS Observations: Preliminary Results},
  booktitle = {International Association of Geodesy Symposia},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {136},
  pages = {19--26},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_3},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_3}
}
Calais E, Nocquet JM, Jouanne F and Tardy M (2002), "Current strain regime in the Western Alps from continuous Global Positioning System measurements, 1996-2001", Geology. Vol. 30(7), pp. 651-654. Geological Society of America.
Abstract: Four to six years of continuous measurements at 10 permanent Global Positioning System sites in the Western Alps show horizontal residual velocities of <2 mm/yr with respect to stable Europe; uncertainties range from 0.3 to 1.4 mm/yr. These velocities and the associated strain-rate field indicate that the central part of the range is currently dominated by east-west extension, whereas the southern part shows north-south to northwest-southeast compression. The geodetic and seismotectonic data are consistent with a model where strain is essentially controlled by the counterclockwise rotation of the Adriatic microplate with respect to Eurasia. This rotation, together with the arcuate shape of the contact between the Adriatic microplate and the Alps, induces dextral shear kinematic boundary conditions across the Western Alps, with an additional divergence component in their central part and in Switzerland, and a convergence component in their southern part.
BibTeX:
@article{Calais_2002,
  author = {Calais, E. and Nocquet, J. M. and Jouanne, F. and Tardy, M.},
  title = {Current strain regime in the Western Alps from continuous Global Positioning System measurements, 1996-2001},
  journal = {Geology},
  publisher = {Geological Society of America},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {30},
  number = {7},
  pages = {651--654},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0651:csritw>2.0.co;2},
  doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0651:CSRITW>2.0.CO;2}
}
Caporali A, Aichhorn C, Barlik M, Becker M, Fejes I, Gerhatova L, Ghitau D, Grenerczy G, Hefty J, Krauss S, Medak D, Milev G, Mojzes M, Mulic M, Nardo A, Pesec P, Rus T, Simek J, Sledzinski J, Solaric M, Stangl G, Stopar B, Vespe F and Virag G (2009), "Surface kinematics in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaric and Balkan region inferred from a new multi-network GPS combination solution", Tectonophysics., sep, 2009. Vol. 474(1-2), pp. 295-321. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: The understanding of the intraplate tectonics of Central Europe requires a detailed picture of how stress is transferred from the interaction of the Eurasian, Nubian and Anatolian plates to the Alpine, Carpathian, Pannonian and Dinaric regions. Recent strain distribution is controlled by the Adria horizontal push, by the Vrancea vertical slab pull and associated horizontal displacements, and by the Aegean/Anatolia extension and slab-roll back. We present a horizontal velocity field for the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonic-Dinaric and Balkan regions resulting from a new combination of seven different GPS networks formed from permanent and campaign stations. Dedicated velocity profiles in two specific regions are studied in detail. One is the Alpine Pannonian region, with a detailed picture of the NS indentation of the Adria microplate into the Southern Alps, in NE Italy, the deformation in the Tauern Window and the eastwards kinematics of a Pannonian plate fragment. The second study region includes Transylvania, the Southern Carpathians up to the Aegean sea and Albania, where a major right lateral shear deformation exists as a consequence of the NE convergence of the Apulia platform towards the Dinarids, and the SSW motion of Macedonia, Western Bulgaria and Rumania, related to the Hellenic arc dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean. The profiles in the Alpine-Pannonian area indicate that a velocity drop of 2.5 +/- 0.4 mm/yr associated with the Adria indentation concentrates on a segment of some 50 km south of the Periadriatic fault. The deformation becomes extensional by a similar amount just north of the Periadriatic fault, in the Tauern Window, where the updoming of the Tauern Window implies vertical motion which could well be associated with surface extension. In the EW profile, we observe a sudden velocity change of 1.5 +/- 0.2 mm/yr in 20 km, corresponding to the right lateral Lavant fault, which seems to mark the border between dominant indentation kinematics to the West and dominant extrusion kinematics to the East. Three profiles are considered in Southern and Eastern Europe: one across the lower Adriatic sea from Apulia in Italy to the southern Dinarides, which enables it to constrain the velocity drop associated with the subduction of the Adria microplate into the Dinarides to 3.2 +/- 0.5 mm/yr in 140 km. The second profile is longitudinal and constrains the velocity inversion of 7.4 +/- 1.0 mm/yr in 350 km associated with right lateral shear faults in Albania. The third profile crosses the Transylvania region with a shortening of 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm/yr in 220 km, and the Wallachian-Moesian region up to the Chalcidic peninsula in N Greece. This lower part of the profile implies an extensional stretch of the upper crust of 3.2 +/- 0.9 mm/yr in 440 km, culminating in the Hellenic arc. Strain rate maps are presented in this regional scale, showing the excellent agreement between fault plane solutions of crustal earthquakes and the eigenvectors of the GPS derived two dimensional strain rate tensor. Three profiles are considered in the Balkan and SE Carpathians: one across the lower Adriatic sea from Apulia in Italy to the southern Dinarides, which enables to constrain the velocity drop associated to the subduction of the Adria microplate into the Dinarides to 3.2 +/- 0.5 mm/yr in 140 km. The second profile is longitudinal and constrains the velocity inversion of 7.4 +/- 1.0 mm/yr in 350 km associated to right lateral shear faults in Macedonia, a highly seismic region. The third profile crosses the Transylvania with a shortening2.3 +/- 1.0 mm/yr in 220 km, and the Wallachian-Moesian region up to the Chalcidic peninsula in N Greece. This lower part of the profile implies an extensional stretch of the upper crust of 3.2 +/- 0.9 mm/yr in 440 km, culminating in the Hellenic arc. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Caporali_2009,
  author = {Caporali, A. and Aichhorn, C. and Barlik, M. and Becker, M. and Fejes, I. and Gerhatova, L. and Ghitau, D. and Grenerczy, G. and Hefty, J. and Krauss, S. and Medak, D. and Milev, G. and Mojzes, M. and Mulic, M. and Nardo, A. and Pesec, P. and Rus, T. and Simek, J. and Sledzinski, J. and Solaric, M. and Stangl, G. and Stopar, B. and Vespe, F. and Virag, G.},
  title = {Surface kinematics in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaric and Balkan region inferred from a new multi-network GPS combination solution},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {474},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {295--321},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.04.035},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2009.04.035}
}
Cenni N, Viti M, Baldi P, Mantovani E, Bacchetti M and Vannucchi A (2013), "Present vertical movements in Central and Northern Italy from GPS data: Possible role of natural and anthropogenic causes", Journal of Geodynamics., nov, 2013. Vol. 71, pp. 74-85. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Insights into the present vertical kinematic pattern in Central and Northern Italy are gained by the analysis of GPS data acquired by a network of 262 permanent stations, working over various time intervals since 2001. Uplift is observed in the Alps (up to 5. mm/yr) and Apennines (1-2. mm/yr), whereas subsidence is recognized in the southern Venetian Plain (2-4. mm/yr) and the eastern Po Valley, where the highest rates are observed (up to 9. mm/yr between Reggio Emilia and Rimini). On the other hand, the western part of the Po Valley presents very low vertical rates. The boundary between subsiding and not subsiding Po Valley nearly corresponds to the Giudicarie tectonic discontinuity. It is argued that the different kinematic patterns of the eastern and western Padanian sectors may also be related to the underthrusting of the eastern domain beneath the western one. Some considerations are then reported on how the various causes of vertical movements (tectonic and sedimentological processes) may contribute to the observed kinematics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Cenni_2013,
  author = {Cenni, N. and Viti, M. and Baldi, P. and Mantovani, E. and Bacchetti, M. and Vannucchi, A.},
  title = {Present vertical movements in Central and Northern Italy from GPS data: Possible role of natural and anthropogenic causes},
  journal = {Journal of Geodynamics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {71},
  pages = {74--85},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2013.07.004},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jog.2013.07.004}
}
Champagnac JD, Schlunegger F, Norton K, von Blanckenburg F, Abbühl LM and Schwab M (2009), "Erosion-driven uplift of the modern Central Alps", Tectonophysics., sep, 2009. Vol. 474(1-2), pp. 236-249. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: We present a compilation of data of modern tectono-geomorphic processes in the Central European Alps which suggest that observed rock uplift is a response to climate-driven denudation. This interpretation is predominantly based on the recent quantification of basin-averaged Late Holocene denudation rates that are so similar to the pattern and rates of rock uplift rates as determined by geodetic leveling. Furthermore, a GPS data-based synthesis of Adriatic microplate kinematics suggests that the Central Alps are currently not in a state of active convergence. Finally, we illustrate that the Central Alps have acted as a closed system for Holocene redistribution of sediment in which the peri-Alpine lakes have operated as a sink for the erosional products of the inner Central Alps. While various hypotheses have been put forward to explain Central Alpine rock uplift (e.g. lithospheric forcing by convergence, mantle processes, or ice melting) we show with an elastic model of lithospheric deformation, that the correlation between erosion and rock uplift rates reflects a positive feedback between denudation and the associated isostatic response to unloading. Thus, erosion does not passively respond to advection of crustal material as might be the case in actively converging orogens. Rather, we suggest that the geomorphic response of the Alpine topography to glacial and fluvial erosion and the resulting disequilibrium for modern channelized and associated hillslope processes explains much of the pattern of modern denudation and hence rock uplift. Therefore, in a non-convergent orogen such as the Central European Alps, the observed vertical rock uplift is primarily a consequence of passive unloading due to erosion. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Champagnac_2009,
  author = {Champagnac, Jean Daniel and Schlunegger, Fritz and Norton, Kevin and von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm and Abbühl, Luca M. and Schwab, Marco},
  title = {Erosion-driven uplift of the modern Central Alps},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {474},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {236--249},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2009.02.024},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2009.02.024}
}
Champollion C, Flamant C, Bock O, Masson F, Turner DD and Weckwerth T (2009), "Mesoscale GPS tomography applied to the 12 June 2002 convective initiation event of IHOP_2002", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., apr, 2009. Vol. 135(640), pp. 645-662. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: The time-varying three-dimensional water vapour field derived from mesoscale Global Positioning System (GPS) tomography data is used to describe the water vapour variability in relation to the dynamics of the atmo sphere during convective initiation (CI). The paper presents the theoretical framework of GPS tomography at the mesoscale, including aspects related to the assimilation of independent data (e.g. water vapour profiles issued from meteorological balloon soundings). GPS tomography-derived water vapour density retrievals are validated against lidar, the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer and radiosonde data, even if the short three-day period of the study prevents conclusions about the real accuracy of the GPS tomography technique. GPS tomography products are used, in synergy with surface and sounding-derived meteorological variable measurements, satellite imagery and reflectivity composites from the WSR-88D network and S-POL radar, to study environmental conditions leading to the 12 June 2002 CI event during the International H(2)O Project. On this day, CI was triggered simultaneously, shortly after 2100 UTC, in two locations along an old Outflow boundary lying east-west in the vicinity of the Oklahoma-Kansas border. The study focuses on CI to the east, which was triggered at the intersection of the outflow boundary with a distinct southwest-northeast-oriented moisture convergence line. The latter formed as the result of a cross-dryline circulation leading to the penetration of dry air meeting with the moister air mass associated with the southerly low-level flow east of the dryline. These intersecting boundaries appeared to have provided the necessary triggering mechanism for getting moist surface air parcels up to the level of free convection. Tomography-derived water vapour fields provided observational evidence of the vertical transport of water vapour above the lifting condensation level and the level of free convection to the south of and along the intersecting boundaries. Copyright (C) 2009 Royal Meteorological Society
BibTeX:
@article{Champollion_2009,
  author = {Champollion, C. and Flamant, C. and Bock, O. and Masson, F. and Turner, D. D. and Weckwerth, T.},
  title = {Mesoscale GPS tomography applied to the 12 June 2002 convective initiation event of IHOP_2002},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {135},
  number = {640},
  pages = {645--662},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.386},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.386}
}
Collilieux X and W??ppelmann G (2011), "Global sea-level rise and its relation to the terrestrial reference frame", Journal of Geodesy., oct, 2011. Vol. 85(1), pp. 9-22. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: We examined the sensitivity of estimates of global sea-level rise obtained from GPS-corrected long term tide gauge records to uncertainties in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) realization. A useful transfer function was established, linking potential errors in the reference frame datum (origin and scale) to resulting errors in the estimate of global sea level rise. Contrary to scale errors that are propagated by a factor of 100%, the impact of errors in the origin depends on the network geometry. The geometry of the network analyzed here resulted in an error propagation factor of 50% for the Z component of the origin, mainly due to the asymmetry in the distribution of the stations between hemispheres. This factor decreased from 50% to less than 10% as the geometry of the network improved using realistic potential stations that did not yet meet the selection criteria (e.g., record length, data availability). Conversely, we explored new constraints on the reference frame by considering forward calculations involving tide gauge records. A reference frame could be found in which the scatter of the regional sea-level rates was limited. The resulting reference frame drifted by 1.36 0.22 mm/year from the ITRF2000 origin in the Z component and by ??0.44 0.22mm/year from the ITRF2005 origin. A bound on the rate of global sea level rise of 1.2 to 1.6mm/year was derived for the past century, depending on the origin of the adopted reference frame. The upper bound is slightly lower than previous estimates of 1.8mm/year discussed in the IPCC fourth report.
BibTeX:
@article{Collilieux_2010,
  author = {Collilieux, Xavier and W??ppelmann, Guy},
  title = {Global sea-level rise and its relation to the terrestrial reference frame},
  journal = {Journal of Geodesy},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {85},
  number = {1},
  pages = {9--22},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00190-010-0412-4},
  doi = {10.1007/s00190-010-0412-4}
}
D'Agostino N, Mantenuto S, D'Anastasio E, Avallone A, Barchi M, Collettini C, Radicioni F, Stoppini A and Fastellini G (2009), "Contemporary crustal extension in the Umbria-Marche Apennines from regional CGPS networks and comparison between geodetic and seismic deformation", Tectonophysics., oct, 2009. Vol. 476(1-2), pp. 3-12. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Here we report the results of the analysis of a GPS velocity field in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (central Italy) obtained from the integration of diverse geodetic networks. The velocity field obtained shows a high degree of consistency both spatially and in terms of comparison with independent information, despite the limited time span of some GPS stations. Starting from the velocity field we derive a continuous strain rate field applying a spline interpolation technique which provide a smooth estimate of the deformation field. The main feature of the resulting strain rate field is a continuous high (>50 nanostrain/year) strain rate belt coincident with the area of largest historical and instrumental seismic release. The model directions of the principal axes agree with geological and seismological information indicating NE-SW extension. We transform the strain rate field into geodetic moment rate using the Kostrov formula to evaluate the potential seismic activity of the region and compare it with actual seismic release in the last 720 years from Mw>5.5 earthquakes. This comparison highlights a large possible deficit in the seismic release with respect to the overall potential seismic activity, particularly concentrated in the northern part of the study area. This discrepancy can be resolved with either a large amount of seismicity to be released in the near future or significant aseismic slip and deformation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{D_Agostino_2009,
  author = {D'Agostino, N. and Mantenuto, S. and D'Anastasio, E. and Avallone, A. and Barchi, M. and Collettini, C. and Radicioni, F. and Stoppini, A. and Fastellini, G.},
  title = {Contemporary crustal extension in the Umbria-Marche Apennines from regional CGPS networks and comparison between geodetic and seismic deformation},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {476},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {3--12},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.09.033},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2008.09.033}
}
Daumas R (1974), "Influence de la température et du développement planctonique sur le mécanisme d'accumulation de la matière organique à la surface de la mer", Marine Biology. Vol. 26(2), pp. 111-116. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@article{Daumas_1974,
  author = {Daumas, R.A.},
  title = {Influence de la température et du développement planctonique sur le mécanisme d'accumulation de la matière organique à la surface de la mer},
  journal = {Marine Biology},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {26},
  number = {2},
  pages = {111--116},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00388880},
  doi = {10.1007/BF00388880}
}
Devoti R, Esposito A, Pietrantonio G, Pisani AR and Riguzzi F (2011), "Evidence of large scale deformation patterns from GPS data in the Italian subduction boundary", Earth and Planetary Science Letters., nov, 2011. Vol. 311(3-4), pp. 230-241. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: We present the velocity field in Italy derived from over 300 continuous GPS stations operated in the 1998-2009 time span. The GPS network maps the whole country with a mean inter-site distance of about 50km and provides a valuable source of data to study the ongoing deformation processes in the central Mediterranean. The estimated horizontal and vertical velocity fields show major significant features and also less known second-order kinematic features. A general uplift characterizes the whole Apennines and Alpine belts that follow the topographic ridge, whereas the Po Plain shows a gradually increasing subsidence from west to east. The Apennines belt displays a distinctive extension (50-80 10-9yr-1) while compressive tectonic regimes characterize northern Sicily, eastern Alps and the northeast front of the northern Apennines (25-50 10-9yr-1). Second-order deformation patterns, on large scale wavelength (100km) have been detected on the accretionary prism of central and southern Apennines that are highly correlated with other geophysical data (Vp anomalies, seismic anisotropy, etc.) and related to deep rooted sections (70-100km), marked by different subduction regimes. Apparently at this scale-length the observed deformations are governed by the lithosphere as a whole. We interpret these deformations as a result of different subduction mechanisms, such as variations of the subduction rollback velocity affecting different segments of the subduction zone and/or to mantle flows in proximity of the slab edges. Further south, in central-southern Sicily, we detect a contraction of (-1.1±0.2) mm/yr that probably accommodates part of the Africa-Eurasia convergence on the outer thrust front of the Apennines-Maghrebides belt. This hypothesis agrees with an independent analysis of the seismicity associated to the Sicilian Basal Thrust, thought to be still active. The ITRF2005 estimates of the new GPS velocity field are available also in SINEX format as supplementary file S1. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Devoti_2011,
  author = {Devoti, Roberto and Esposito, Alessandra and Pietrantonio, Grazia and Pisani, Anna Rita and Riguzzi, Federica},
  title = {Evidence of large scale deformation patterns from GPS data in the Italian subduction boundary},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {311},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {230--241},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.034},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.034}
}
Doulkeridis C, Vlachou A, Kotidis Y and Vazirgiannis M (2007), "Peer-to-peer similarity search in metric spaces", In Proceedings of the 33rd international conference on Very Large Databases., dec, 2007. Vol. 2(iii), pp. 986-997. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: This paper addresses the efficient processing of similarity queries in metric spaces, where data is horizontally distributed across a P2P network. The proposed approach does not rely on arbitrary data movement, hence each peer joining the network autonomously ...
BibTeX:
@incollection{Pinedo_2011,
  author = {Doulkeridis, Christos and Vlachou, Akrivi and Kotidis, Yannis and Vazirgiannis, Michalis},
  title = {Peer-to-peer similarity search in metric spaces},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd international conference on Very Large Databases},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {2},
  number = {iii},
  pages = {986--997},
  url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1325851.1325962},
  doi = {10.1007/978-1-4614-}
}
Ducrocq V, Belamari S, Boudevillain B, Bousquet O, Cocquerez P, Doerenbecher a, Drobinski P, Flamant C, Labatut L, Lambert D, Nuret M, Richard E, Roussot O, Testor P, Arbogast P, Ayral P-a, Baelen JV, Basdevant C, Boichard J-L, Bourras D, Bouvier C, Bouin M-N, Bock O, Braud I, Champollion C, Coppola L, Coquillat S, Defer E, Delanoe J, Delrieu G, Didon-Lescot J-F, Durand P, Estournel C, Fourrié N, Garrouste O, Giordani H, Coz JL, Michel Y, Nuissier O, Roberts G, Said F, Schwarzenboeck a, Sellegri K, Taupier-Letage I and Vandervaere J-P (2013), "HyMeX, les campagnes de mesures : focus sur les événements extrêmes en Méditerranée", La Météorologie. Vol. 8(80), pp. 37. INIST-CNRS.
BibTeX:
@article{Ducrocq_2013,
  author = {Ducrocq, V. and Belamari, S. and Boudevillain, B. and Bousquet, O. and Cocquerez, P. and Doerenbecher, a. and Drobinski, P. and Flamant, C. and Labatut, L. and Lambert, D. and Nuret, M. and Richard, E. and Roussot, O. and Testor, P. and Arbogast, P. and Ayral, P.-a. and Baelen, J. Van and Basdevant, C. and Boichard, J.-L. and Bourras, D. and Bouvier, C. and Bouin, M.-N. and Bock, O. and Braud, I. and Champollion, C. and Coppola, L. and Coquillat, S. and Defer, E. and Delanoe, J. and Delrieu, G. and Didon-Lescot, J.-F. and Durand, P. and Estournel, C. and Fourrié, N. and Garrouste, O. and Giordani, H. and Coz, J. Le and Michel, Y. and Nuissier, O. and Roberts, G. and Said, F. and Schwarzenboeck, a. and Sellegri, K. and Taupier-Letage, I. and Vandervaere, J.-P.},
  title = {HyMeX, les campagnes de mesures : focus sur les événements extrêmes en Méditerranée},
  journal = {La Météorologie},
  publisher = {INIST-CNRS},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  number = {80},
  pages = {37},
  url = {http://hdl.handle.net/2042/48793},
  doi = {10.4267/2042/48793}
}
Fallourd R, Harant O, Trouvé E, Nicolas JM, Gay M, Walpersdorf A, Mugnier JL, Serafini J, Roşu D, Bombrun L, Vasile G, Cotte N, Vernier F, Tupin F, Moreau L and Bolon P (2011), "Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing., jun, 2011. Vol. 4(2), pp. 372-386. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Abstract: A new generation of space-borne SAR sensors were launched in 2006-2007 with ALOS, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-Sky-Med and RadarSat-2 satellites. The data available in different bands (L, C and X bands), with High Resolution (HR) or multi-polarization modes offer new possibilities to monitor glacier displacement and surface evolution by SAR remote sensing. In this paper, the first results obtained with TerraSAR-X HR SAR image time series acquired over the temperate glaciers of the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test site are presented. This area involves well-known temperate glaciers which have been monitored and instrumented i.e. stakes for annual displacement/ablation, GPS for surface displacement and cavitometer for basal displacement, for more than 50 years. The potential of 11-day repeated X-band HR SAR data for Alpine glacier monitoring is investigated by a combined use of in situ measurements and multi-temporal images. Interpretations of HR images, analysis of interferometric pairs and performance assessments of target/texture tracking methods for glacier motion estimation are presented. The results obtained with four time series covering the Chamonix Mont-Blanc glaciers over one year show that the phase information is rarely preserved after 11 days on such glaciers, whereas the high resolution intensity information allows the main glacier features to be observed and displacement fields on the textured areas to be derived.
BibTeX:
@article{Fallourd_2011,
  author = {Fallourd, Renaud and Harant, Olivier and Trouvé, Emmanuel and Nicolas, Jean Marie and Gay, Michel and Walpersdorf, Andrea and Mugnier, Jean Louis and Serafini, Jonathan and Roşu, Diana and Bombrun, Lionel and Vasile, Gabriel and Cotte, Nathalie and Vernier, Flavien and Tupin, Florence and Moreau, Luc and Bolon, Philippe},
  title = {Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {372--386},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2010.2096200},
  doi = {10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2096200}
}
Fallourd R, Harant O, Trouvé E, Nicolas JM, Gay M, Walpersdorf A, Mugnier JL, Serafini J, Roşu D, Bombrun L, Vasile G, Cotte N, Vernier F, Tupin F, Moreau L and Bolon P (2011), "Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing., jun, 2011. Vol. 4(2), pp. 372-386. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Abstract: A new generation of space-borne SAR sensors were launched in 2006-2007 with ALOS, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-Sky-Med and RadarSat-2 satellites. The data available in different bands (L, C and X bands), with High Resolution (HR) or multi-polarization modes offer new possibilities to monitor glacier displacement and surface evolution by SAR remote sensing. In this paper, the first results obtained with TerraSAR-X HR SAR image time series acquired over the temperate glaciers of the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test site are presented. This area involves well-known temperate glaciers which have been monitored and instrumented i.e. stakes for annual displacement/ablation, GPS for surface displacement and cavitometer for basal displacement, for more than 50 years. The potential of 11-day repeated X-band HR SAR data for Alpine glacier monitoring is investigated by a combined use of in situ measurements and multi-temporal images. Interpretations of HR images, analysis of interferometric pairs and performance assessments of target/texture tracking methods for glacier motion estimation are presented. The results obtained with four time series covering the Chamonix Mont-Blanc glaciers over one year show that the phase information is rarely preserved after 11 days on such glaciers, whereas the high resolution intensity information allows the main glacier features to be observed and displacement fields on the textured areas to be derived.
BibTeX:
@article{FallourdHarantTrouveEtAl2011,
  author = {Fallourd, Renaud and Harant, Olivier and Trouvé, Emmanuel and Nicolas, Jean Marie and Gay, Michel and Walpersdorf, Andrea and Mugnier, Jean Louis and Serafini, Jonathan and Roşu, Diana and Bombrun, Lionel and Vasile, Gabriel and Cotte, Nathalie and Vernier, Flavien and Tupin, Florence and Moreau, Luc and Bolon, Philippe},
  title = {Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {372--386},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2010.2096200},
  doi = {10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2096200}
}
Fallourd R, Harant O, Trouvé E, Nicolas JM, Gay M, Walpersdorf A, Mugnier JL, Serafini J, Roşu D, Bombrun L, Vasile G, Cotte N, Vernier F, Tupin F, Moreau L and Bolon P (2011), "Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing., jun, 2011. Vol. 4(2), pp. 372-386. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Abstract: A new generation of space-borne SAR sensors were launched in 2006-2007 with ALOS, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-Sky-Med and RadarSat-2 satellites. The data available in different bands (L, C and X bands), with High Resolution (HR) or multi-polarization modes offer new possibilities to monitor glacier displacement and surface evolution by SAR remote sensing. In this paper, the first results obtained with TerraSAR-X HR SAR image time series acquired over the temperate glaciers of the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test site are presented. This area involves well-known temperate glaciers which have been monitored and instrumented i.e. stakes for annual displacement/ablation, GPS for surface displacement and cavitometer for basal displacement, for more than 50 years. The potential of 11-day repeated X-band HR SAR data for Alpine glacier monitoring is investigated by a combined use of in situ measurements and multi-temporal images. Interpretations of HR images, analysis of interferometric pairs and performance assessments of target/texture tracking methods for glacier motion estimation are presented. The results obtained with four time series covering the Chamonix Mont-Blanc glaciers over one year show that the phase information is rarely preserved after 11 days on such glaciers, whereas the high resolution intensity information allows the main glacier features to be observed and displacement fields on the textured areas to be derived.
BibTeX:
@article{FallourdHarantTrouveEtAl2011a,
  author = {Fallourd, Renaud and Harant, Olivier and Trouvé, Emmanuel and Nicolas, Jean Marie and Gay, Michel and Walpersdorf, Andrea and Mugnier, Jean Louis and Serafini, Jonathan and Roşu, Diana and Bombrun, Lionel and Vasile, Gabriel and Cotte, Nathalie and Vernier, Flavien and Tupin, Florence and Moreau, Luc and Bolon, Philippe},
  title = {Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {372--386},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2010.2096200},
  doi = {10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2096200}
}
Fallourd R, Harant O, Trouvé E, Nicolas JM, Gay M, Walpersdorf A, Mugnier JL, Serafini J, Roşu D, Bombrun L, Vasile G, Cotte N, Vernier F, Tupin F, Moreau L and Bolon P (2011), "Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing., jun, 2011. Vol. 4(2), pp. 372-386. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Abstract: A new generation of space-borne SAR sensors were launched in 2006-2007 with ALOS, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-Sky-Med and RadarSat-2 satellites. The data available in different bands (L, C and X bands), with High Resolution (HR) or multi-polarization modes offer new possibilities to monitor glacier displacement and surface evolution by SAR remote sensing. In this paper, the first results obtained with TerraSAR-X HR SAR image time series acquired over the temperate glaciers of the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test site are presented. This area involves well-known temperate glaciers which have been monitored and instrumented i.e. stakes for annual displacement/ablation, GPS for surface displacement and cavitometer for basal displacement, for more than 50 years. The potential of 11-day repeated X-band HR SAR data for Alpine glacier monitoring is investigated by a combined use of in situ measurements and multi-temporal images. Interpretations of HR images, analysis of interferometric pairs and performance assessments of target/texture tracking methods for glacier motion estimation are presented. The results obtained with four time series covering the Chamonix Mont-Blanc glaciers over one year show that the phase information is rarely preserved after 11 days on such glaciers, whereas the high resolution intensity information allows the main glacier features to be observed and displacement fields on the textured areas to be derived.
BibTeX:
@article{FallourdHarantTrouveEtAl2011b,
  author = {Fallourd, Renaud and Harant, Olivier and Trouvé, Emmanuel and Nicolas, Jean Marie and Gay, Michel and Walpersdorf, Andrea and Mugnier, Jean Louis and Serafini, Jonathan and Roşu, Diana and Bombrun, Lionel and Vasile, Gabriel and Cotte, Nathalie and Vernier, Flavien and Tupin, Florence and Moreau, Luc and Bolon, Philippe},
  title = {Monitoring temperate glacier displacement by multi-temporal TerraSAR-X images and continuous GPS measurements},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {372--386},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2010.2096200},
  doi = {10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2096200}
}
Feng G, Jin S and Zhang T (2013), "Coastal sea level changes in Europe from GPS, tide gauge, satellite altimetry and GRACE, 1993-2011", Advances in Space Research., mar, 2013. Vol. 51(6), pp. 1019-1028. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Sea level changes are threatening the human living environments, particularly along the European Coasts with highly dense population. In this paper, coastal sea level changes in western and southern Europe are investigated for the period 1993-2011 using Global Positioning System (GPS), Tide Gauge (TG), Satellite Altimetry (SA), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and geophysical models. The mean secular trend is 2.26 ± 0.52 mm/y from satellite altimetry, 2.43 ± 0.61 mm/y from TG+GPS and 1.99 ± 0.67 mm/y from GRACE mass plus steric components, which have a remarkably good agreement. For the seasonal variations, annual amplitudes of satellite altimetry and TG+GPS results are almost similar, while GRACE Mass+Steric results are a little smaller. The annual phases agree remarkably well for three independent techniques. The annual cycle is mainly driven by the steric contributions, while the annual phases of non-steric (mass component) sea level changes are almost a half year later than the steric sea level changes.
BibTeX:
@article{Feng_2013,
  author = {Feng, Guiping and Jin, S. and Zhang, T.},
  title = {Coastal sea level changes in Europe from GPS, tide gauge, satellite altimetry and GRACE, 1993-2011},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {51},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1019--1028},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2012.09.011},
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2012.09.011}
}
Ferenc M, Nicolas J, van Dam T, Polidori L, Rigo A and Vernant P (2014), "An estimate of the influence of loading effects on tectonic velocities in the Pyrenees", Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica., aug, 2014. Vol. 58(1), pp. 56-75. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: Surface displacements due to temporal changes in environmental mass redistributions are observable in the coordinate time series of many Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) sites. In this study, we investigated the effect of loading on estimates of tectonic velocity computed from campaign-style GNSS observations. The study region is in the Pyrenees mountain range between France and Spain (ResPyr campaigns). In this area, seismic activity is continuous and moderate and the expected amplitude of the horizontal tectonic velocity is less than 0.5 mm/yr. In order to determine the velocity, 4 sparse GNSS campaigns were carried out from 1995 to 2010. Considering this small rate of deformation, loading phenomena can contribute a non-negligible artifact to the velocity computation that could affect our geodynamical interpretation. In this investigation, we specifically considered the atmospheric, hydrological, and non-tidal ocean loading phenomena. The computed loading deformations for this region show the horizontal displacements are dominated by the non-tidal ocean loading (maximum 4 mm for the North and 3.1 mm for the East components); the main vertical contributions are due to the atmospheric and continental water storage loading (maximum 14.3 for the atmosphere and 8.1 mm for the hydrology, respectively). We have found that the dominant loading effect on the horizontal velocity is the non-tidal ocean loading (mean of 0.11 mm/yr), whereas the vertical component is dominated by the hydrological loading (mean of 0.21 mm/yr). Since the study area is in a mountainous region, we also analyzed the difference between the atmospheric and the topography dependent atmospheric loading models at our GNSS campaign sites. We did not find any significant difference between the two atmospheric loading models in terms of horizontal velocity. Finally, we performed simulations to identify the optimum timing and frequency of future GNSS campaigns in this area that would minimize the loading effects on tectonic velocity estimates. © 2013 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i.
BibTeX:
@article{Ferenc_2013,
  author = {Ferenc, Marcell and Nicolas, Joelle and van Dam, Tonie and Polidori, Laurent and Rigo, Alexis and Vernant, Philippe},
  title = {An estimate of the influence of loading effects on tectonic velocities in the Pyrenees},
  journal = {Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {58},
  number = {1},
  pages = {56--75},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11200-012-0458-2},
  doi = {10.1007/s11200-012-0458-2}
}
Fuhrmann T, Heck B, Kn??pfler A, Masson F, Mayer M, Ulrich P, Westerhaus M and Zippelt K (2013), "Recent surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben - Preliminary results from geodetic networks", Tectonophysics., aug, 2013. Vol. 602, pp. 300-315. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Datasets of the GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network (GURN) and the national levelling networks in Germany, France and Switzerland are investigated with respect to current surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area. GURN consists of about 80 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations. The terrestrial levelling network comprises 1st and 2nd order levelling lines that have been remeasured at intervals of roughly 25. years, starting in 1922. Compared to earlier studies national institutions and private companies made available raw data, allowing for consistent solutions for the URG region. We focussed on the southern and eastern parts of the investigation area. Our preliminary results show that the levelling and GNSS datasets are sensitive to resolve small surface displacement rates down to an order of magnitude of 0.2. mm/a and 0.4. mm/a, respectively. The observed horizontal velocity components for a test region south of Strasbourg, obtained from GNSS coordinate time series, vary around 0.5. mm/a. The results are in general agreement with interseismic strain built-up in a sinistral strike-slip regime. Since the accuracy of the GNSS derived vertical component is insufficient, data of precise levelling networks is used to determine vertical displacement rates. More than 75% of the vertical rates obtained from a kinematic adjustment of 1st order levelling lines in the eastern part of URG vary between - 0.2. mm/a and +. 0.2. mm/a, indicating that this region behaves stable. Higher rates up to 0.5. mm/a in a limited region south of Freiburg are in general agreement with active faulting. We conclude that both networks deliver stable results that reflect real surface movements in the URG area. We note, however, that geodetically observed surface displacements generally result from a superposition of different effects, and that a separation in tectonic and non-tectonic processes needs additional information and expertise. ?? 2012 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Fuhrmann_2013,
  author = {Fuhrmann, Thomas and Heck, Bernhard and Kn??pfler, Andreas and Masson, Fr??d??ric and Mayer, Michael and Ulrich, Patrice and Westerhaus, Malte and Zippelt, Karl},
  title = {Recent surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben - Preliminary results from geodetic networks},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {602},
  pages = {300--315},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2012.10.012},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2012.10.012}
}
Fuhrmann T, Luo X, Kn??pfler A and Mayer M (2014), "Generating statistically robust multipath stacking maps using congruent cells", GPS Solutions., feb, 2014. Vol. 19(1), pp. 83-92. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: Multipath effects caused by reflections in the near-field and far-field of a GNSS antenna represent a major error source in static and kinematic GNSS positioning applications. Since these effects are strongly site-specific, a generally valid and practicable analytical multipath model is still lacking. In contrast, using GNSS carrier phase observation residuals, the multipath stacking (MPS) methods are able to take site-specific conditions into account. We propose an advanced approach to performing residual-based MPS in the space domain. Being superior to most conventional attempts in which stacking cells have a fixed azimuthal resolution, our suggested method makes use of congruent cells and rigorous statistical assessments in terms of outlier detection and significance evaluation of the stacked values. The advanced stacking approach is applied to representative phase residuals from static precise point positioning. The results show that the use of congruent cells allows for MPS at high elevation angles and with a fine spatial resolution. Applying the resulting MPS maps at the residual level, both near-field and far-field effects at high and low elevation angles, respectively, can be significantly mitigated. In comparison with the conventional approach, the advanced one enables a larger reduction of about 20 % in the SD of residuals.
BibTeX:
@article{Fuhrmann_2014,
  author = {Fuhrmann, Thomas and Luo, Xiaoguang and Kn??pfler, Andreas and Mayer, Michael},
  title = {Generating statistically robust multipath stacking maps using congruent cells},
  journal = {GPS Solutions},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {19},
  number = {1},
  pages = {83--92},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10291-014-0367-7},
  doi = {10.1007/s10291-014-0367-7}
}
Fund F, Morel L and Mocquet A (2012), "Assessment of the FES2004 Derived OTL Model in the West of France and Preliminary Results About Impacts of Tropospheric Models", In Geodesy for Planet Earth., jul, 2012. Vol. 136, pp. 573-579. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{FundMorelMocquet2012,
  author = {Fund, F and Morel, L and Mocquet, A},
  title = {Assessment of the FES2004 Derived OTL Model in the West of France and Preliminary Results About Impacts of Tropospheric Models},
  booktitle = {Geodesy for Planet Earth},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {136},
  pages = {573--579},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_70},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_70}
}
Fund F, Morel L and Mocquet A (2011), "A discussion of height reductions for Zenith Hydrostatic Delays derived from weather models", Journal of Applied Geodesy., jan, 2011. Vol. 5(2), pp. 71-80. Walter de Gruyter GmbH.
Abstract: Abstract Accurate a priori Zenith Hydrostatic Delays (ZHDs) are required during the processing of space geodetic observations. The data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are routinely processed and translated in terms of ZHDs by the Vienna University of Technology. The usual way to compute gridded ZHDs at a particular location is to correct the four nearest nodes of the grid for their difference in height with respect to the site height and to then interpolate these reduced values. This paper compares and discusses the performance achieved by five methods of reduction that have been proposed in the literature. The interpolated ZHD values are compared with the site-specific ones for a global network of 363 sites over a three-year period. The methods that only use vertical profiles of atmospheric pressure lead to annual signals that are correlated with ground temperature, while the methods that take temperature into account do not contain such annual signals. The reduction methods that use a constant temperature lead to errors of 2 mm in terms of equivalent height. We also find that the a posteriori errors of the reduced gridded ZHDs are strongly correlated with the pressure over temperature ratio. We recommend that gridded ZHDs be reduced with the combination of both pressure and temperature when processing space geodetic observations. Abstract Accurate a priori Zenith Hydrostatic Delays (ZHDs) are required during the processing of space geodetic observations. The data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are routinely processed and translated in terms of ZHDs by the Vienna University of Technology. The usual way to compute gridded ZHDs at a particular location is to correct the four nearest nodes of the grid for their difference in height with respect to the site height and to then interpolate these reduced values. This paper compares and discusses the performance achieved by five methods of reduction that have been proposed in the literature. The interpolated ZHD values are compared with the site-specific ones for a global network of 363 sites over a three-year period. The methods that only use vertical profiles of atmospheric pressure lead to annual signals that are correlated with ground temperature, while the methods that take temperature into account do not contain such annual signals. The reduction methods that use a constant temperature lead to errors of 2 mm in terms of equivalent height. We also find that the a posteriori errors of the reduced gridded ZHDs are strongly correlated with the pressure over temperature ratio. We recommend that gridded ZHDs be reduced with the combination of both pressure and temperature when processing space geodetic observations.
BibTeX:
@article{Fund_2011,
  author = {Fund, F and Morel, L and Mocquet, A},
  title = {A discussion of height reductions for Zenith Hydrostatic Delays derived from weather models},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Geodesy},
  publisher = {Walter de Gruyter GmbH},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {5},
  number = {2},
  pages = {71--80},
  url = {citeulike-article-id:9649443$nhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jag.2011.006},
  doi = {doi: 10.1515/jag.2011.006}
}
Fund F, Morel L, Mocquet A and Boehm J (2011), "Assessment of ECMWF-derived tropospheric delay models within the EUREF Permanent Network", GPS Solutions., mar, 2011. Vol. 15(1), pp. 39-48. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@article{Fund_2010,
  author = {Fund, F. and Morel, L. and Mocquet, A. and Boehm, J.},
  title = {Assessment of ECMWF-derived tropospheric delay models within the EUREF Permanent Network},
  journal = {GPS Solutions},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {15},
  number = {1},
  pages = {39--48},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10291-010-0166-8},
  doi = {10.1007/s10291-010-0166-8}
}
Garate J, Martin-Davila J, Khazaradze G, Echeverria A, Asensio E, Gil AJ, de Lacy MC, Armenteros JA, Ruiz AM, Gallastegui J, Alvarez-Lobato F, Ayala C, Rodrguez-Caderot G, Galindo-Zaldvar J, Rimi A and Harnafi M (2015), "Topo-Iberia project: CGPS crustal velocity field in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco", GPS Solutions., jun, 2015. Vol. 19(2), pp. 287-295. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: A new Continuous GPS network was installed under the umbrella of a Research Project called “Geociencias en Iberia: Estudios integrados de topografa y evolución 4D (Topo-Iberia)”, to improve understanding of kinematic behavior of the Iberian Peninsula region. Here we present a velocity field based on the analysis of the four years of data from the 25 stations constituting the network, which were analyzed by three different analysis groups contributing to the project. Different geodetic software packages (GIPSY–OASIS, Bernese and GAMIT) as well as different approaches were used to estimate rates of present-day crustal deformation in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. In order to ensure the consistency of the velocity fields determined by the three groups, the velocities obtained by each Analysis Centre were transformed into a common Eurasia Reference Frame. After that, the strain rate field was calculated. The results put in evidence more prominent residual motions in Morocco and southern-most part of the Iberian Peninsula. In particular, the dilatation and shear strain rates reach their maximum values in the central Betics and northern Alboran Sea. A small region of high shear strain rate is observed in the east-central part of the peninsula and another deformation focus is located around the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Cadiz.
BibTeX:
@article{Garate_2014,
  author = {Garate, J. and Martin-Davila, J. and Khazaradze, G. and Echeverria, A. and Asensio, E. and Gil, A. J. and de Lacy, M. C. and Armenteros, J. A. and Ruiz, A. M. and Gallastegui, J. and Alvarez-Lobato, F. and Ayala, C. and Rodrguez-Caderot, G. and Galindo-Zaldvar, J. and Rimi, A. and Harnafi, M.},
  title = {Topo-Iberia project: CGPS crustal velocity field in the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco},
  journal = {GPS Solutions},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {19},
  number = {2},
  pages = {287--295},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10291-014-0387-3},
  doi = {10.1007/s10291-014-0387-3}
}
Gardi A, Baize S and Scotti O (2010), "Present-day vertical isostatic readjustment of the Western Alps revealed by numerical modelling and geodetic and seismotectonic data", Geological Society, London, Special Publications., jan, 2010. Vol. 332(1), pp. 115-128. Geological Society of London.
BibTeX:
@article{Gardi_2010,
  author = {Gardi, A. and Baize, S. and Scotti, O.},
  title = {Present-day vertical isostatic readjustment of the Western Alps revealed by numerical modelling and geodetic and seismotectonic data},
  journal = {Geological Society, London, Special Publications},
  publisher = {Geological Society of London},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {332},
  number = {1},
  pages = {115--128},
  url = {http://sp.lyellcollection.org/cgi/doi/10.1144/SP332.8},
  doi = {10.1144/SP332.8}
}
Gouriou T, Mart??n M??guez B and W??ppelmann G (2013), "Reconstruction of a two-century long sea level record for the Pertuis d'Antioche (France)", Continental Shelf Research. Vol. 61-62, pp. 31-40. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: This paper describes the work of sea level data rescue, digitization, reduction to a common vertical reference and quality control leading to the reconstruction of a time series for the Atlantic NW coast of France (Pertuis d'Antioche). A total of 14 sea level data sets were merged to build a consistent composite time series of monthly and annual mean sea levels spanning 188 years (1824-2011).The estimation of a linear trend for this time series yields a relative mean sea level rise for the region of 1.3??0.1mmyr-1 for the whole study period, and 1.9??0.2mmyr-1 for the 20th century, consistent with previous studies in the region. This work evidences the importance of data archaeology in the pursuing of historical information useful for sea level studies, which can be relevant for climate research and coastal management amongst other applications. ?? 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Gouriou_2013,
  author = {Gouriou, Thomas and Mart??n M??guez, Bel??n and W??ppelmann, Guy},
  title = {Reconstruction of a two-century long sea level record for the Pertuis d'Antioche (France)},
  journal = {Continental Shelf Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {61-62},
  pages = {31--40},
  url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0278434313001283},
  doi = {10.1016/j.csr.2013.04.028}
}
Jin R, Jin S and Feng G (2012), "M_DCB: Matlab code for estimating GNSS satellite and receiver differential code biases", GPS Solutions., jul, 2012. Vol. 16(4), pp. 541-548. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) have been widely used to monitor variations in the earth's ionosphere by estimating total electron content (TEC) using dual-frequency observations. Differential code biases (DCBs) are one of the important error sources in estimating precise TEC from GNSS data. The International GNSS Service (IGS) Analysis Centers have routinely provided DCB estimates for GNSS satellites and IGS ground receivers, but the DCBs for regional and local network receivers are not provided. Furthermore, the DCB values of GNSS satellites or receivers are assumed to be constant over 1 day or 1 month, which is not always the case. We describe Matlab code to estimate GNSS satellite and receiver DCBs for time intervals from hours to days; the software is called M_DCB. The DCBs of GNSS satellites and ground receivers are tested and evaluated using data from the IGS GNSS network. The estimates from M_DCB show good agreement with the IGS Analysis Centers with a mean difference of less than 0. 7 ns and an RMS of less than 0. 4 ns, even for a single station DCB estimate. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
BibTeX:
@article{Jin_2012,
  author = {Jin, Rui and Jin, Shuanggen and Feng, Guiping},
  title = {M_DCB: Matlab code for estimating GNSS satellite and receiver differential code biases},
  journal = {GPS Solutions},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {16},
  number = {4},
  pages = {541--548},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10291-012-0279-3},
  doi = {10.1007/s10291-012-0279-3}
}
King MA, Keshin M, Whitehouse PL, Thomas ID, Milne G and Riva REM (2012), "Regional biases in absolute sea-level estimates from tide gauge data due to residual unmodeled vertical land movement", Geophysical Research Letters., jul, 2012. Vol. 39(14), pp. n/a--n/a. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: The only vertical land movement signal routinely corrected for when estimating absolute sea-level change from tide gauge data is that due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We compare modeled GIA uplift (ICE-5G + VM2) with vertical land movement at ∼300 GPS stations located near to a global set of tide gauges, and find regionally coherent differences of commonly ±0.5–2 mm/yr. Reference frame differences and signal due to present-day mass trends cannot reconcile these differences. We examine sensitivity to the GIA Earth model by fitting to a subset of the GPS velocities and find substantial regional sensitivity, but no single Earth model is able to reduce the disagreement in all regions. We suggest errors in ice history and neglected lateral Earth structure dominate model-data differences, and urge caution in the use of modeled GIA uplift alone when interpreting regional- and global- scale absolute (geocentric) sea level from tide gauge data.
BibTeX:
@article{King_2012,
  author = {King, Matt A. and Keshin, Maxim and Whitehouse, Pippa L. and Thomas, Ian D. and Milne, Glenn and Riva, Riccardo E M},
  title = {Regional biases in absolute sea-level estimates from tide gauge data due to residual unmodeled vertical land movement},
  journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {39},
  number = {14},
  pages = {n/a----n/a},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012gl052348},
  doi = {10.1029/2012GL052348}
}
Koulali A, Ouazar D, Tahayt A, King RW, Vernant P, Reilinger RE, McClusky S, Mourabit T, Davila JM and Amraoui N (2011), "New GPS constraints on active deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary", Earth and Planetary Science Letters., aug, 2011. Vol. 308(1-2), pp. 211-217. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: We use velocities from 65 continuous stations and 31 survey-mode GPS sites as well as kinematic modeling to investigate present day deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary zone in the western Mediterranean region. The GPS velocity field shows southwestward motion of the central part of the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco with respect to Africa varying between 3.5 and 4.0. mm/yr, consistent with prior published results. Stations in the southwestern part of the Betic Mountains of southern Spain move west-southwest with respect to Eurasia ( 2-3. mm/yr). The western component of Betics motion is consistent with partial transfer of Nubia-Eurasia plate motion into the southern Betics. The southward component of Betics motion with respect to Iberia is kinematically consistent with south to southwest motion of the Rif Mountains with respect to Africa. We use block modeling, constrained by mapped surface faults and seismicity to estimate the geometry and rates of strain accumulation on plate boundary structures. Our preferred plate boundary geometry includes one block between Iberia and Africa including the SW Betics, Alboran Sea, and central Rif. This geometry provides a good fit to the observed motions, suggesting a wide transpressive boundary in the westernmost Mediterranean, with deformation mainly accommodated by the Gloria-Azores fault system to the West and the Rif-Tell lineament to the East. Block boundaries encompass aspects of earlier interpretations suggesting three main deformation styles: (i) extension along the NE-SW trending Trans-Alboran shear zone, (ii) dextral strike-slip in the Betics corresponding to a well defined E-W seismic lineament, and (iii) right lateral strike-slip motion extending West to the Azores and right-lateral motion with compression extending East along the Algerian Tell. We interpret differential motion in the Rif-Alboran-Betic system to be driven both by surface processes related the Africa-Eurasia oblique convergence and sub-crustal dynamic processes associated with the long history of subduction of the Neotethys ocean lithosphere. The dextral slip identified in the Betic Mountains in Southern Spain may be related to the offshore fault that produced the Great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, and as such may represent a significant seismic hazard for the West Mediterranean region. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Koulali_2011,
  author = {Koulali, A. and Ouazar, D. and Tahayt, A. and King, R. W. and Vernant, P. and Reilinger, R. E. and McClusky, S. and Mourabit, T. and Davila, J. M. and Amraoui, N.},
  title = {New GPS constraints on active deformation along the Africa-Iberia plate boundary},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {308},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {211--217},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.048},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.048}
}
Kreemer C, Blewitt G and Klein EC (2014), "A geodetic plate motion and Global Strain Rate Model", Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems., oct, 2014. Vol. 15(10), pp. 3849-3889. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: We present a new global model of plate motions and strain rates in plate boundary zones constrained by horizontal geodetic velocities. This Global Strain Rate Model (GSRM v.2.1) is a vast improvement over its predecessor both in terms of amount of data input as in an increase in spatial model resolution by factor of ˜2.5 in areas with dense data coverage. We determined 6739 velocities from time-series of (mostly) continuous GPS measurements; i.e., by far the largest global velocity solution to date. We transformed 15772 velocities from 233 (mostly) published studies onto our core solution to obtain 22511 velocities in the same reference frame. Care is taken to not use velocities from stations (or time periods) that are affected by transient phenomena; i.e., this data-set consists of velocities best representing the interseismic plate velocity. About 14% of the Earth is allowed to deform in 145,086 deforming grid cells (0.25º longitude by 0.2º latitude in dimension). The remainder of the Earth’s surface is modeled as rigid spherical caps representing 50 tectonic plates. For 36 plates we present new GPS-derived angular velocities. For all the plates that can be compared with the most recent geologic plate motion model, we find that the difference in angular velocity is significant. The rigid-body rotations are used as boundary conditions in the strain rate calculations. The strain rate field is modeled using the Haines and Holt method, which uses splines to obtain an self-consistent interpolated velocity gradient tensor field, from which strain rates, vorticity rates, and expected velocities are derived. We also present expected faulting orientations in areas with significant vorticity, and update the no-net rotation reference frame associated with our global velocity gradient field. Finally, we present a global map of recurrence times for Mw=7.5 characteristic earthquakes.
BibTeX:
@article{Kreemer_2014,
  author = {Kreemer, Corné and Blewitt, Geoffrey and Klein, Elliot C.},
  title = {A geodetic plate motion and Global Strain Rate Model},
  journal = {Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {15},
  number = {10},
  pages = {3849--3889},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014gc005407},
  doi = {10.1002/2014GC005407}
}
Labbouz L, Van Baelen J, Tridon F, Reverdy M, Hagen M, Bender M, Dick G, Gorgas T and Planche C (2013), "Precipitation on the lee side of the Vosges Mountains: Multi-instrumental study of one case from the COPS campaign", Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Vol. 22(4), pp. 413-432. Schweizerbart.
BibTeX:
@article{Labbouz_2013,
  author = {Labbouz, L. and Van Baelen, J. and Tridon, F. and Reverdy, M. and Hagen, M. and Bender, M. and Dick, G. and Gorgas, T. and Planche, C.},
  title = {Precipitation on the lee side of the Vosges Mountains: Multi-instrumental study of one case from the COPS campaign},
  journal = {Meteorologische Zeitschrift},
  publisher = {Schweizerbart},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {22},
  number = {4},
  pages = {413--432},
  url = {http://openurl.ingenta.com/content/xref?genre=article&issn=0941-2948&volume=22&issue=4&spage=413},
  doi = {10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0413}
}
Larroque C, Delouis B, Godel Bé and Nocquet JM (2009), "Active deformation at the southwestern Alps-Ligurian basin junction (France-Italy boundary): Evidence for recent change from compression to extension in the Argentera massif", Tectonophysics., mar, 2009. Vol. 467(1-4), pp. 22-34. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Several hundred earthquakes of small and moderate magnitude occur each year at the southwestern Alps-Ligurian basin junction. In addition, the historical seismicity data attests for earthquakes of magnitude close to 6.5. Despite the seismic hazard and the vulnerability of this region, the present-day driving mechanism of deformation and the major structures accommodating these deformations remain unclear. This littoral area presents a strong topographic gradient from 3000 masl on the Argentera alpine massif to 2500 m.u.s.l. in the Ligurian basin and a strong structural inheritage resulting from 50 My geological evolution combining different processes such as continental collision and ocean basin opening. We present new results about the kinematics of the Corsica-Sardinia continental block with respect to the western alpine belt. From 7 years of continuous GPS measurements we show that a small part of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence is certainly transferred northward of the Maghrebides deformation belts to the Corsica-Sardinia block. In the southwesternmost Alps from Torino to the Mediterranean coast, the baselines reveal differential motions of lengthening between the Po plain and the Argentera and shortening between the Argentera and the Ligurian domain. In a region where few focal solutions are available we determine seven new focal mechanisms located in the Argentera massif. These new data underline a quaternary change from compression to extension in that part of the western alpine belt. The focal mechanisms calculated attest for extensional faulting at shallow level between 1 and 11 km depth. We add 7 focal mechanisms from the literature to calculate the stress tensor: a homogeneous solution indicates a direction of extension broadly perpendicular to the topographic axis culmination of the Argentera. In contrast, the earthquakes recorded below 15 km at the northwestern margin of the Po plain testify reverse faulting and a compressional state of stress in the deep crust. Thus, we point out that the stress field is vertically heterogeneous in the crust of the Argentera area. The Ligurian domain is mainly characterized by reverse and strike-slip faulting. The major earthquakes are located in the northern margin and at the ocean-continent transition. These earthquakes are assumed to result from the reactivation, in a compressional state of stress, of the structures formed during the Oligo-Miocene opening of the Ligurian basin. Finally, we propose three hypotheses to explain the current deformation at the Alps-Ligurian basin junction, taking into account the far-field kinematics between the Nubia and the Eurasia plates, the topographic gradient between the Argentera massif and the Ligurian oceanic floor and the distribution of the deformations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Larroque_2009,
  author = {Larroque, Christophe and Delouis, Bertrand and Godel, Bélinda and Nocquet, Jean Mathieu},
  title = {Active deformation at the southwestern Alps-Ligurian basin junction (France-Italy boundary): Evidence for recent change from compression to extension in the Argentera massif},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {467},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {22--34},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.013},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.013}
}
Mahfouf, Jean-Francois; Ahmed, Furqan; Moll, Patrick; Teferle LN (2015), "Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model : a recent assessment", Tellus - Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography., feb, 2015. Vol. 67(26106), pp. 1-20. Co-Action Publishing.
BibTeX:
@article{Mahfouf_2015,
  author = {Mahfouf, Jean-Francois; Ahmed, Furqan; Moll, Patrick; Teferle, Leix N.},
  title = {Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model : a recent assessment},
  journal = {Tellus - Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography},
  publisher = {Co-Action Publishing},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {67},
  number = {26106},
  pages = {1--20},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v67.26106},
  doi = {10.3402/tellusa.v67.26106}
}
Mayer M, Knöpfler A, Heck B, Masson F, Ulrich P and Ferhat G (2012), "GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network): Research Goals and First Results of a Transnational Geo-scientific Network", In Geodesy for Planet Earth., jul, 2012. , pp. 673-681. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Mayer_2011,
  author = {Mayer, M. and Knöpfler, A. and Heck, B. and Masson, F. and Ulrich, P. and Ferhat, G.},
  title = {GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network): Research Goals and First Results of a Transnational Geo-scientific Network},
  booktitle = {Geodesy for Planet Earth},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {673--681},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_83},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_83}
}
Mayer M, Knöpfler A, Heck B, Masson F, Ulrich P and Ferhat G (2012), "GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network): Research Goals and First Results of a Transnational Geo-scientific Network", In Geodesy for Planet Earth., jul, 2012. , pp. 673-681. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{MayerKnoepflerHeckEtAl2012,
  author = {Mayer, M. and Knöpfler, A. and Heck, B. and Masson, F. and Ulrich, P. and Ferhat, G.},
  title = {GURN (GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network): Research Goals and First Results of a Transnational Geo-scientific Network},
  booktitle = {Geodesy for Planet Earth},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {673--681},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_83},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_83}
}
Morel L, Pottiaux E, Durand F, Fund F, Boniface K, De Oliveira PS and Van Baelen J (2015), "Validity and behaviour of tropospheric gradients estimated by GPS in Corsica", Advances in Space Research., jan, 2015. Vol. 55(1), pp. 135-149. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Estimation of tropospheric gradients in GNSS data processing is a well-known technique to improve positioning (e.g. Bar-Sever et al., 1998; Chen and Herring, 1997). More recently, several authors also focused on the estimation of such parameters for meteorological studies and demonstrated their potential benefits (e.g. Champollion et al., 2004). Today, they are routinely estimated by several global and regional GNSS analysis centres but they are still not yet used for operational meteorology. This paper discusses the physical meaning of tropospheric gradients estimated from GPS observations recorded in 2011 by 13 permanent stations located in Corsica Island (a French Island in the western part of Italy). Corsica Island is a particularly interesting location for such study as it presents a significant environmental contrast between the continent and the sea, as well as a steep topography. Therefore, we estimated Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) and tropospheric gradients using two software: GAMIT/GLOBK (GAMIT version 10.5) and GIPSY-OASIS II version 6.1. Our results are then compared to radiosonde observations and to the IGS final troposphere products. For all stations we found a good agreement between the ZWD estimated by the two software (the mean of the ZWD differences is 1 mm with a standard deviation of 6 mm) but the tropospheric gradients are in less good agreement (the mean of the gradient differences is 0.1 mm with a standard deviation of 0.7 mm), despite the differences in the processing strategy (double-differences for GAMIT/GLOBK versus zero-difference for GIPSY-OASIS). We also observe that gradient amplitudes are correlated with the seasonal behaviour of the humidity. Like ZWD estimates, they are larger in summer than in winter. Their directions are stable over the time but not correlated with the IWV anomaly observed by ERA-Interim. Tropospheric gradients observed at many sites always point to inland throughout the year. These preferred directions are almost opposite to the largest slope of the local topography as derived from the world Digital Elevation Model ASTER GDEM v2. These first results give a physical meaning to gradients but the origin of such directions need further investigations.
BibTeX:
@article{Morel_2015,
  author = {Morel, Laurent and Pottiaux, Eric and Durand, Fr??d??ric and Fund, Fran??ois and Boniface, Karen and De Oliveira, Paulo Sergio and Van Baelen, Jo??l},
  title = {Validity and behaviour of tropospheric gradients estimated by GPS in Corsica},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {55},
  number = {1},
  pages = {135--149},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2014.10.004 http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0273117714006322},
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2014.10.004}
}
Nicolas J, Durand S, Vergnolle M, Morel L, Melachroinos S, Bouin M-N and Fund F (2012), "Ocean Loading in Brittany, Northwest France: Impact of the GPS Analysis Strategy", In International Association of Geodesy Symposia., oct, 2012. , pp. 367-372. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Nicolas_2011,
  author = {Nicolas, Joëlle and Durand, Stéphane and Vergnolle, Mathilde and Morel, Laurent and Melachroinos, Stavros and Bouin, Marie-Noëlle and Fund, François},
  title = {Ocean Loading in Brittany, Northwest France: Impact of the GPS Analysis Strategy},
  booktitle = {International Association of Geodesy Symposia},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {367--372},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-22078-4_55},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-22078-4_55}
}
Nicolas J, Perosanz F, Rigo A, Le Bliguet G, Morel L and Fund F (2012), "Impact of Loading Phenomena on Velocity Field Computation from GPS Campaigns: Application to ResPyr GPS Campaign in the Pyrenees", In Geodesy for Planet Earth., jul, 2012. , pp. 643-649. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{NicolasPerosanzRigoEtAl2012,
  author = {Nicolas, J. and Perosanz, F. and Rigo, A. and Le Bliguet, G. and Morel, L. and Fund, F.},
  title = {Impact of Loading Phenomena on Velocity Field Computation from GPS Campaigns: Application to ResPyr GPS Campaign in the Pyrenees},
  booktitle = {Geodesy for Planet Earth},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {643--649},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_79},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_79}
}
Nocquet JM (2012), "Present-day kinematics of the Mediterranean: A comprehensive overview of GPS results", Tectonophysics., dec, 2012. Vol. 579, pp. 220-242. Elsevier B.V..
Abstract: I combine recently published GPS results to derive a geodetic horizontal velocity field consistent at the scale of the Mediterranean and the surrounding Alpine belts. The velocity field is then used to discuss the boundary conditions around each major deforming area in the Mediterranean, to describe the main patterns of motion and deformation, to critically review the existing kinematics models and to finally point out the main unresolved kinematics questions. Strain rate in Europe north of the Alpines belt is dominated by the signature of the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and tectonic strain remains below the current accuracy of GPS results. In the western Mediterranean, deformation is restricted to the Betics, the Alboran and the Morrocan Rif, with west-to-southwestward motion with respect to Iberia, which is part of stable Europe. Shortening, consistent with the relative Nubia/Eurasia plate motion, is found throughout the Maghrebides, but the distribution of deformation in northern Africa remains largely unknown. The central Mediterranean is dominated by the counter-clockwise rotation of the Adriatic. The junction between the southern Adriatic domain and Nubia has yet to be firmly established. The deformation over a wide area, east of the Maghrebides, in Tunisia and the gulf of Sirte in Libya still remains to be quantified. In the eastern Mediterranean, the velocity field is dominated by a general anti-clockwise rotation and a general trend towards the Hellenic trench, with velocity magnitude increasing with decreasing distances from the trench. This trend is observed not only in the Aegean and Anatolia, but also in the southern Balkans. Geodetic results emphasize that the convergence of the Nubia and Arabia plates towards Eurasia directly controls the deformation across only very few segments along the plate boundary zone. Additional processes are therefore required to explain the observed velocity field and deformation pattern. ?? 2012 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Nocquet2012,
  author = {Nocquet, Jean Mathieu},
  title = {Present-day kinematics of the Mediterranean: A comprehensive overview of GPS results},
  journal = {Tectonophysics},
  publisher = {Elsevier B.V.},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {579},
  pages = {220--242},
  url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0040195112001953},
  doi = {10.1016/j.tecto.2012.03.037}
}
Ponton F, Trouv?? E, Gay M, Walpersdorf A, Fallourd R, Nicolas JM, Vernier F and Mugnier JL (2014), "ObServation of the Argenti??re glacier flow variability from 2009 to 2011 by TerraSAR-X and GPS displacement measurements", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing., aug, 2014. Vol. 7(8), pp. 3274-3284. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
BibTeX:
@article{Ponton_2014,
  author = {Ponton, Fanny and Trouv??, Emmanuel and Gay, Michel and Walpersdorf, Andrea and Fallourd, Renaud and Nicolas, Jean Marie and Vernier, Flavien and Mugnier, Jean Louis},
  title = {ObServation of the Argenti??re glacier flow variability from 2009 to 2011 by TerraSAR-X and GPS displacement measurements},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {7},
  number = {8},
  pages = {3274--3284},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2014.2349004},
  doi = {10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2349004}
}
Ponton F, Trouv?? E, Gay M, Walpersdorf A, Fallourd R, Nicolas JM, Vernier F and Mugnier JL (2014), "ObServation of the Argenti??re glacier flow variability from 2009 to 2011 by TerraSAR-X and GPS displacement measurements", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing., aug, 2014. Vol. 7(8), pp. 3274-3284. Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
BibTeX:
@article{PontonTrouv??GayEtAl2014,
  author = {Ponton, Fanny and Trouv??, Emmanuel and Gay, Michel and Walpersdorf, Andrea and Fallourd, Renaud and Nicolas, Jean Marie and Vernier, Flavien and Mugnier, Jean Louis},
  title = {ObServation of the Argenti??re glacier flow variability from 2009 to 2011 by TerraSAR-X and GPS displacement measurements},
  journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {7},
  number = {8},
  pages = {3274--3284},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jstars.2014.2349004},
  doi = {10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2349004}
}
Razak KA, Bucksch A, Damen M, van Westen C, Straatsma M and de Jong S (2013), "Characterizing Tree Growth Anomaly Induced by Landslides Using LiDAR", In Landslide Science and Practice. , pp. 235-241. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Razak_2013,
  author = {Razak, Khamarrul A. and Bucksch, Alexander and Damen, Michiel and van Westen, Cees and Straatsma, Menno and de Jong, Steven},
  title = {Characterizing Tree Growth Anomaly Induced by Landslides Using LiDAR},
  booktitle = {Landslide Science and Practice},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {235--241},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-31325-7_31},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-31325-7_31}
}
Razak KA, Straatsma MW, van Westen CJ, Malet JP and de Jong SM (2011), "Airborne laser scanning of forested landslides characterization: Terrain model quality and visualization", Geomorphology., mar, 2011. Vol. 126(1-2), pp. 186-200. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: Mapping complex landslides under forested terrain requires an appropriate quality of digital terrain models (DTMs), which preserve small diagnostic features for landslide classification such as primary and secondary scarps, cracks, and displacement structures (flow-type and rigid-type). Optical satellite imagery, aerial photographs and synthetic aperture radar images are less effective to create reliable DTMs under tree coverage. Here, we utilized a very high density airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, with a point density of 140 points m-2 for generating a high quality DTM for mapping landslides in forested terrain in the Barcelonnette region, the Southern French Alps. We quantitatively evaluated the preservation of morphological features and qualitatively assessed the visualization of ALS-derived DTMs. We presented a filter parameterization method suitable for landslide mapping and compared it with two default filters from the hierarchical robust interpolation (HRI) and one default filter from the progressive TIN densification (PTD) method. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of the DTM derived from the landslide filter is about 0.04m less accurate than that from the PTD filter. However, the landslide filter yields a better quality of the image for the recognition of small diagnostic features as depicted by expert image interpreters. Several DTM visualization techniques were compared for visual interpretation. The openness map visualized in a stereoscopic model reveals more morphologically relevant features for landslide mapping than the other filter products. We also analyzed the minimal point density in ALS data for landslide mapping and found that a point density of more than 6 points m-2 is considered suitable for a detailed analysis of morphological features. This study illustrates the suitability of high density ALS data with an appropriate parameterization for the bare-earth extraction used for landslide identification and characterization in forested terrain. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Razak_2011,
  author = {Razak, K. A. and Straatsma, M. W. and van Westen, C. J. and Malet, J. P. and de Jong, S. M.},
  title = {Airborne laser scanning of forested landslides characterization: Terrain model quality and visualization},
  journal = {Geomorphology},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {126},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {186--200},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.11.003},
  doi = {10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.11.003}
}
Rigo A, Vernant P, Feigl KL, Goula X, Khazaradze G, Talaya J, Morel L, Nicolas J, Baize S, Chéry J and Sylvander M (2015), "Present-day deformation of the Pyrenees revealed by GPS surveying and earthquake focal mechanisms until 2011", Geophysical Journal International., mar, 2015. Vol. 201(2), pp. 947-964. Oxford University Press (OUP).
Abstract: The Pyrenean mountain range is a slowly deforming belt with continuous and moderate seismic activity. To quantify its deformation field, we present the velocity field estimated from a GPS survey of the Pyrenees spanning 18 yr. The PotSis and ResPyr networks, including a total of 85 GPS sites, were installed and first measured in 1992 and 1995–1997, respectively, and remeasured in 2008 and 2010. We obtain a deformation field with velocities less than 1 mm yr−1 across the range. The estimated velocities for individual stations do not differ significantly from zero with 95 per cent confidence. Even so, we estimate a maximum extensional horizontal strain rate of 2.0 ± 1.7 nanostrain per year in a N–S direction in the western part of the range. We do not interpret the vertical displacements due to their large uncertainties. In order to compare the horizontal strain rates with the seismic activity, we analyse a set of 194 focal mechanisms using three methods: (i) the ‘r’ factor relating their P and T axes, (ii) the stress tensors obtained by fault slip inversion and (iii) the strain-rate tensors. Stress and strain-rate tensors are estimated for: (i) the whole data set, (ii) the eastern and western parts of the range separately, and (iii) eight zones, which are defined based on the seismicity and the tectonic patterns of the Pyrenees. Each of these analyses reveals a lateral variation of the deformation style from compression and extension in the east to extension and strike-slip in the west of the range. Although the horizontal components of the strain-rate tensors estimated from the seismic data are slightly smaller in magnitude than those computed from the GPS velocity field, they are consistent within the 2$ uncertainties. Furthermore, the orientations of their principal axes agree with the mapped active faults.
BibTeX:
@article{Rigo_2015,
  author = {Rigo, A. and Vernant, P. and Feigl, K. L. and Goula, X. and Khazaradze, G. and Talaya, J. and Morel, L. and Nicolas, J. and Baize, S. and Chéry, J. and Sylvander, M.},
  title = {Present-day deformation of the Pyrenees revealed by GPS surveying and earthquake focal mechanisms until 2011},
  journal = {Geophysical Journal International},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {201},
  number = {2},
  pages = {947--964},
  url = {http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/content/201/2/947.abstract},
  doi = {10.1093/gji/ggv052}
}
Rosat S, Boy JP, Ferhat G, Hinderer J, Amalvict M, Gegout P and Luck B (2009), "Analysis of a 10-year (1997-2007) record of time-varying gravity in Strasbourg using absolute and superconducting gravimeters: New results on the calibration and comparison with GPS height changes and hydrology", Journal of Geodynamics., dec, 2009. Vol. 48(3-5), pp. 360-365. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: This paper is devoted to a detailed investigation of a continuous record spanning more than 10 years (1997-2007) of the Strasbourg superconducting gravimeter (SG GWR C026). We show the results from various scale factor experiments using parallel registrations with an absolute gravimeter (AG FG5206). These results allow us to discuss the time stability of the calibration of the SG. We also superimpose the AG and SG measurements to infer the long-term instrumental drift behavior of the SG but also the seasonal effects present at our station. These long-term effects are discussed in terms of height changes by using collocated GPS measurements (since 1999) and in terms of hydrology (mainly with large scale hydrological models). The collocated GPS height changes help in separating the gravity variation due to the vertical motion of the station from the variation due to the mass redistribution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Rosat_2009,
  author = {Rosat, S. and Boy, J. P. and Ferhat, G. and Hinderer, J. and Amalvict, M. and Gegout, P. and Luck, B.},
  title = {Analysis of a 10-year (1997-2007) record of time-varying gravity in Strasbourg using absolute and superconducting gravimeters: New results on the calibration and comparison with GPS height changes and hydrology},
  journal = {Journal of Geodynamics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {48},
  number = {3-5},
  pages = {360--365},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2009.09.026},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jog.2009.09.026}
}
Rudenko S, Schön N, Uhlemann M and Gendt G (2013), "Reprocessed height time series for GPS stations", Solid Earth., jan, 2013. Vol. 4(1), pp. 23-41. Copernicus GmbH.
Abstract: Precise weekly positions of 403 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations located worldwide are obtained by reprocessing GPS data of these stations for the time span from 4 January 1998 until 29 December 2007. The processing algorithms and models used as well as the solution and results obtained are presented. Vertical velocities of 266 GPS stations having a tracking history longer than 2.5 yr are computed; 107 of them are GPS stations located at tide gauges (TIGA observing stations). The vertical velocities calculated in this study are compared with the estimates from the co-located tide gauges and other GPS solutions. The formal errors of the estimated vertical velocities are 0.01–0.80 mm yr−1. The vertical velocities of our solution agree within 1 mm yr−1 with those of the recent solutions (ULR5 and ULR3) of the Université de La Rochelle for about 67–75 per cent of the common stations. Examples of typical behaviour of station height changes are given and interpreted. The derived height time series and vertical motions of continuous GPS at tide gauges stations can be used for correcting the vertical land motion in tide gauge records of sea level changes.
BibTeX:
@article{Rudenko_2013,
  author = {Rudenko, S. and Schön, N. and Uhlemann, M. and Gendt, G.},
  title = {Reprocessed height time series for GPS stations},
  journal = {Solid Earth},
  publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23--41},
  url = {http://www.solid-earth.net/4/23/2013/},
  doi = {10.5194/se-4-23-2013}
}
Santamara-Gómez A, Bouin M-N, Collilieux X and Wöppelmann G (2013), "Time-Correlated GPS Noise Dependency on Data Time Period", In Reference Frames for Applications in Geosciences., nov, 2013. , pp. 119-124. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Santamaria-GomezBouinCollilieuxEtAl2013,
  author = {Santamara-Gómez, Alvaro and Bouin, Marie-Noëlle and Collilieux, Xavier and Wöppelmann, Guy},
  title = {Time-Correlated GPS Noise Dependency on Data Time Period},
  booktitle = {Reference Frames for Applications in Geosciences},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {119--124},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-32998-2_19},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-32998-2_19}
}
Santamara-Gómez A, Gravelle M, Collilieux X, Guichard M, Mguez BM, Tiphaneau P and Wöppelmann G (2012), "Mitigating the effects of vertical land motion in tide gauge records using a state-of-the-art GPS velocity field", Global and Planetary Change., dec, 2012. Vol. 98-99, pp. 6-17. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: This study aims to correct for long-term vertical land motions at tide gauges (TG) by estimating high-accurate GPS vertical velocities at co-located stations (GPS@TG), useful for long-term sea-level change studies and satellite altimeter drift monitoring. Global Positioning System (GPS) data reanalyses are mandatory when aiming at the highest consistency of the estimated products for the whole data period. The University of La Rochelle Consortium (ULR) has carried out several GPS data reanalysis campaigns with an increasing tracking network, an improving processing strategy and the best methodology. The geodetic results from the latest GPS velocity field estimated at ULR (named ULR5) are presented here. The velocity field includes 326 globally distributed GPS stations, from which 200 are GPS@TG (30% more than previous studies). The new GPS data processing strategy, the terrestrial frame definition and the velocity estimation procedures are described. The quality of the estimated vertical velocities is empirically assessed through internal and external velocity comparisons, including the analysis of the time-correlated noise content of the position time series, to be better than 0.6. mm/yr (2 sigma). The application of this velocity field is illustrated to appraise to what extent vertical land motions contaminate the estimates of satellite altimetry drifts. The impact on the altimeter-derived sea level trends was evaluated to be up to 0.6. mm/yr. Worldwide TGs were grouped into regions in order to explore long-term spatial sea level variability in the rates of sea level change. By taking into account the vertical land motion of the tide gauges, the dispersion of the observed sea level rates within each region was reduced by 60%. Long-term regional mean sea level variations up to 70% from the global mean were found. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Santamaria_Gomez_2012,
  author = {Santamara-Gómez, A. and Gravelle, M. and Collilieux, X. and Guichard, M. and Mguez, B. Martn and Tiphaneau, P. and Wöppelmann, G.},
  title = {Mitigating the effects of vertical land motion in tide gauge records using a state-of-the-art GPS velocity field},
  journal = {Global and Planetary Change},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {98-99},
  pages = {6--17},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.07.007},
  doi = {10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.07.007}
}
Santamaria-Gomez A, Bouin MN, Collilieux X and Wöppelmann G (2011), "Correlated errors in GPS position time series: Implications for velocity estimates", Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth., jan, 2011. Vol. 116(1) Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: This study focuses on the effects of time correlation in weekly GPS position time series on velocity estimates. Time series 2.5 to 13 years long from a homogeneously reprocessed solution of 275 globally distributed stations are analyzed in terms of noise content and velocity uncertainty assessment. Several noise models were tested, including power law and Gauss-Markov processes. The best noise model describing our global data set was a combination of variable white noise and power law noise models with mean amplitudes of ∼2 mm and ∼6 mm, respectively, for the sites considered. This noise model provided a mean vertical velocity uncertainty of ∼0.3 mm/yr, 4–5 times larger than the uncorrelated data assumption. We demonstrated that correlated noise content with homogeneously reprocessed data is dependent on time series length and, especially, on data time period. Time series of 2–3 years of the oldest data contain noise amplitude similar to that found for time series of 12 years. The data time period should be taken into account when estimating correlated noise content, when comparing different noise estimations, or when applying an external noise estimation to assess velocity uncertainty. We showed that the data period dependency cannot be explained by the increasing tracking network or the ambiguity fixation rate but is probably related to the amount and quality of recorded data.
BibTeX:
@article{Santamaria-GomezBouinCollilieuxEtAl2011,
  author = {Santamaria-Gomez, Alvaro and Bouin, Marie Noelle and Collilieux, Xavier and Wöppelmann, Guy},
  title = {Correlated errors in GPS position time series: Implications for velocity estimates},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {116},
  number = {1},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010jb007701},
  doi = {10.1029/2010JB007701}
}
Santamaria-Gomez A, Bouin MN and Wöppelmann G (2012), "Improved GPS data analysis strategy for tide gauge benchmark monitoring", In International Association of Geodesy Symposia., jul, 2012. Vol. 136, pp. 11-18. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Santamaria_Gomez_2011,
  author = {Santamaria-Gomez, Alvaro and Bouin, Marie Noelle and Wöppelmann, Guy},
  title = {Improved GPS data analysis strategy for tide gauge benchmark monitoring},
  booktitle = {International Association of Geodesy Symposia},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {136},
  pages = {11--18},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_2},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-20338-1_2}
}
Santamaria-Gomez A, Watson C, Gravelle Mé, King M and Wöppelmann G (2015), "Levelling co-located GNSS and tide gauge stations using GNSS reflectometry", Journal of Geodesy., dec, 2015. Vol. 89(3), pp. 241-258. Springer Science Business Media.
Abstract: The GNSS reflectometry technique provides geometric information on the environment surrounding the GNSS antenna including the vertical distance to a reflecting surface. We use sea-surface reflections of GPS signals, recorded as oscillations in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), to estimate the GNSS to tide gauge (TG) levelling tie, and thus the ellipsoidal heights of the TG. We develop approaches to isolate SNR data dominated by sea-surface reflections and to remove SNR frequency changes caused by the dynamic sea surface. Comparison with in situ levelling at eight sites reveals mean differences at the centimetre level for satellites above 12 $($circ $) elevation, with four sites showing differences of 3 cm or smaller. These differences include errors in the in situ levelling, in the antenna calibration model and in the TG measurements, and so represent an upper bound on our technique’s error. Data sampling (1 or 30 s) does not significantly affect the results. We detect systematic errors at the decimetre level related to satellite elevations below 12 $($circ $) and to sea-surface height and also differences between results from the L1 and L2 GPS signals larger than 15 cm at two sites. These systematic errors remain unexplained; differences between GPS signals are attributed to receiver-dependent differences in the SNR measurements, while the elevation-dependent error is attributed to unmodelled phase effects such as those caused by tropospheric refraction and sea-surface roughness. Using our approach, we identify a levelling offset of 1.5 cm related to a TG sensor change, illustrating our technique’s value for TG reference monitoring.
BibTeX:
@article{Santamaria_Gomez_2014,
  author = {Santamaria-Gomez, Alvaro and Watson, Christopher and Gravelle, Médéric and King, Matt and Wöppelmann, Guy},
  title = {Levelling co-located GNSS and tide gauge stations using GNSS reflectometry},
  journal = {Journal of Geodesy},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {89},
  number = {3},
  pages = {241--258},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00190-014-0784-y},
  doi = {10.1007/s00190-014-0784-y}
}
Sguerso D, Labbouz L and Walpersdorf A (2015), "14 years of GPS tropospheric delays in the French–Italian border region: comparisons and first application in a case study", Applied Geomatics., may, 2015. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@article{Sguerso_2015,
  author = {Sguerso, Domenico and Labbouz, Laurent and Walpersdorf, Andrea},
  title = {14 years of GPS tropospheric delays in the French–Italian border region: comparisons and first application in a case study},
  journal = {Applied Geomatics},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2015},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12518-015-0158-z},
  doi = {10.1007/s12518-015-0158-z}
}
Sneeuw N, Novák P, Crespi M and Sansó F (2012), "VII Hotine-Marussi Symposium on Mathematical Geodesy: Proceedings of the Symposium in Rome, 6-10 June, 2009", In International Association of Geodesy Symposia. Vol. 137, pp. 39-45. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
BibTeX:
@book{Giorgi_2004,
  author = {Sneeuw, Nico and Novák, Pavel and Crespi, Mattia and Sansó, Fernando},
  editor = {Sansò, Fernando},
  title = {VII Hotine-Marussi Symposium on Mathematical Geodesy: Proceedings of the Symposium in Rome, 6-10 June, 2009},
  booktitle = {International Association of Geodesy Symposia},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {137},
  pages = {39--45},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-22078-4},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-22078-4}
}
van der Spoel E, Rozing MP, Houwing-Duistermaat JJ, Eline Slagboom P, Beekman M, de Craen AJM, Westendorp RGJ and van Heemst D (2015), "Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study". jan, 2015.
Abstract: Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex-specific strata according to their levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 and IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. We found that lower IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratios were associated with improved survival: nonagenarians in the quartile of the lowest ratio had a lower estimated hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.59 – 0.91) compared to the quartile with the highest ratio (ptrend=0.002). Functional status was assessed by (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living ((I)ADL) scales. Compared to those in the quartile with the highest IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, nonagenarians in the lowest quartile had higher scores for ADL (ptrend=0.001) and IADL (ptrend=0.003). These findings suggest that IGF-1 axis parameters are associated with increased old age survival and better functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study.
BibTeX:
@misc{Fallis_2012,
  author = {van der Spoel, Evie and Rozing, Maarten P. and Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J. and Eline Slagboom, P. and Beekman, Marian and de Craen, Anton J M and Westendorp, Rudi G J and van Heemst, Diana},
  title = {Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study},
  booktitle = {Aging},
  publisher = {Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology of RAS (IMPB RAS)},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {7},
  number = {11},
  pages = {956--963},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.17537/2012.7.t1},
  doi = {10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004}
}
Tu R, Zhang H, Ge M and Huang G (2013), "A real-time ionospheric model based on GNSS Precise Point Positioning", Advances in Space Research., sep, 2013. Vol. 52(6), pp. 1125-1134. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: This paper proposes a method of real-time monitoring and modeling the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) by Precise Point Positioning (PPP). Firstly, the ionospheric TEC and receiver's Differential Code Biases (DCB) are estimated with the undifferenced raw observation in real-time, then the ionospheric TEC model is established based on the Single Layer Model (SLM) assumption and the recovered ionospheric TEC. In this study, phase observations with high precision are directly used instead of phase smoothed code observations. In addition, the DCB estimation is separated from the establishment of the ionospheric model which will limit the impacts of the SLM assumption impacts. The ionospheric model is established at every epoch for real time application. The method is validated with three different GNSS networks on a local, regional, and global basis. The results show that the method is feasible and effective, the real-time ionosphere and DCB results are very consistent with the IGS final products, with a bias of 1-2 TECU and 0.4 ns respectively. ?? 2013 COSPAR. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Tu_2013,
  author = {Tu, Rui and Zhang, Hongping and Ge, Maorong and Huang, Guanwen},
  title = {A real-time ionospheric model based on GNSS Precise Point Positioning},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {52},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1125--1134},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.06.015},
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2013.06.015}
}
Tu R, Zhang H, Ge M and Huang G (2013), "A real-time ionospheric model based on GNSS Precise Point Positioning", Advances in Space Research., sep, 2013. Vol. 52(6), pp. 1125-1134. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: This paper proposes a method of real-time monitoring and modeling the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) by Precise Point Positioning (PPP). Firstly, the ionospheric TEC and receiver's Differential Code Biases (DCB) are estimated with the undifferenced raw observation in real-time, then the ionospheric TEC model is established based on the Single Layer Model (SLM) assumption and the recovered ionospheric TEC. In this study, phase observations with high precision are directly used instead of phase smoothed code observations. In addition, the DCB estimation is separated from the establishment of the ionospheric model which will limit the impacts of the SLM assumption impacts. The ionospheric model is established at every epoch for real time application. The method is validated with three different GNSS networks on a local, regional, and global basis. The results show that the method is feasible and effective, the real-time ionosphere and DCB results are very consistent with the IGS final products, with a bias of 1-2 TECU and 0.4 ns respectively. ?? 2013 COSPAR. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{TuZhangGeEtAl2013,
  author = {Tu, Rui and Zhang, Hongping and Ge, Maorong and Huang, Guanwen},
  title = {A real-time ionospheric model based on GNSS Precise Point Positioning},
  journal = {Advances in Space Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {52},
  number = {6},
  pages = {1125--1134},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.06.015},
  doi = {10.1016/j.asr.2013.06.015}
}
Van Baelen J and Penide G (2009), "Study of water vapor vertical variability and possible cloud formation with a small network of GPS stations", Geophysical Research Letters., jan, 2009. Vol. 36(2), pp. n/a--n/a. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: During a short experiment we have investigated the vertical variability of water vapor in the lower part of the atmosphere with the help of small network of GPS stations positioned on the eastern slopes of the Puy de Dôme in central France. We have found out that the urban layer exhibits somewhat constant water vapor content. In contrast, the major IWV variations arise in the upper troposphere level, in particular in the presence of westerly flows that bring elevated water vapor content over the mountain ridge. Finally, the transition layer situated between these lower and upper levels presents quite variable water vapor content, acting as a buffer zone for the boundary layer. Comparing two episodes of higher water vapor contents, one being associated with a sharp frontal passage, we have shown that the contrasted behavior of the different layers revealed the possible formation of clouds before the advent of rain.
BibTeX:
@article{Van_Baelen_2009,
  author = {Van Baelen, Joël and Penide, Guillaume},
  title = {Study of water vapor vertical variability and possible cloud formation with a small network of GPS stations},
  journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {36},
  number = {2},
  pages = {n/a----n/a},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008gl036148},
  doi = {10.1029/2008GL036148}
}
Van Baelen J, Reverdy M, Tridon F, Labbouz L, Dick G, Bender M and Hagen M (2011), "On the relationship between water vapour field evolution and the life cycle of precipitation systems", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., jan, 2011. Vol. 137(SUPPL. 1), pp. 204-223. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: In this work, we investigate the relationship between the structure and evolution (from initiation to decay) of precipitation systems, and the associated water vapour distributions during the COPS (Convective Orographically-induced Precipitation Study). This international field campaign took place over an area from the Vosges to the Black Forest Mountains, across the Rhine Valley, in summer 2007. In particular, we consider water vapour retrieval through GPS integrated water vapour 2D maps and 3D tomography, and compare these to precipitation systems observed with the ground-based C-band POLDIRAD weather radar. We have demonstrated the predominant role of water vapour as a precursor to convective initiation for local convective cell generation. Water vapour accumulation on the crest of the orography is associated with ridge convection, while water vapour passing over the mountain top and creating valley outflows generates lee-side convection, often triggered by a small hill positioned within or close to the valley exit, or by a local convergence with the water vapour field over the plain. We have also noted that frontal systems seem to develop preferentially where the largest amount of water vapour is available. Likewise, in the case of frontal systems, well-formed synoptic-scale storms are associated with high water vapour signatures, while weaker systems with embedded convection appear to trail high water vapour areas where the convective element is associated with local water vapour depletion. This latter aspect could be the signature of convective cloud formation, when water vapour is transferred into liquid water, before the onset of precipitation. Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society
BibTeX:
@article{Van_Baelen_2011,
  author = {Van Baelen, J. and Reverdy, M. and Tridon, F. and Labbouz, L. and Dick, G. and Bender, M. and Hagen, M.},
  title = {On the relationship between water vapour field evolution and the life cycle of precipitation systems},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {137},
  number = {SUPPL. 1},
  pages = {204--223},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.785},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.785}
}
Van Vliet-Lanoë B, Penaud A, Hénaff A, Delacourt C, Fernane A, Goslin Jé, Hallégouët B and Le Cornec E (2014), "Middle- to late-Holocene storminess in Brittany (NW France): Part II – The chronology of events and climate forcing", The Holocene ., feb, 2014. Vol. 24 (4 ), pp. 434-453. SAGE Publications.
Abstract: This study focuses on the recurring climate conditions required for the largest storms occurring in NW France (Brittany). It is based on the analysed records of storm events along Western Brittany coast (see Part I). In this manuscript (Part II), storm recurrence is explored along with forcing mechanisms. Periods of more frequent storm events over the two last centuries are analysed first in order to link these events with possible forcing mechanisms (North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modes) triggering the most destructive storms. Then, palaeostorm events are discussed at the Holocene scale, from 6000 yr BP to present, to verify the forcing mechanisms. Most recorded events appear to be linked with cooling episodes, mostly in winter, a transition to or from a negative winter NAO mode, a positive AMO mode. Extreme storms occur immediately prior to the ‘Medieval Warm Period’ (MWP). Maximum effects are reached prior to the onset of the MWP and during the Maunder and Dalton solar minima. Low storm activity occurred during the Spörer Minimum linked to an acceleration of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Main storm triggers seem to correspond to a positive AMO mode with an unstable jetstream configuration driving a negative NAO. In this study, four specific weather configurations were defined to explain each type of recorded storminess. The strongest storms correspond to low AMO and decennial-negative NAO modes (e.g. ‘Little Ice Age’), or high AMO in association with dominant low NAO modes, as during the early Middle Age and present-day period. Fresh or warm oceans in association with a positive NAO mode are stormy but with very low sting storms frequency. Although in agreement with the orbital forcing and the Holocene glacial history, increasing storm frequency and intensity is most probably partly biased by continuous sea-level rise and resulting erosion.
BibTeX:
@article{Van_Vliet_Lanoe_2014,
  author = {Van Vliet-Lanoë, Brigitte and Penaud, Aurélie and Hénaff, Alain and Delacourt, Christophe and Fernane, Assia and Goslin, Jérôme and Hallégouët, Bernard and Le Cornec, Erwan},
  title = {Middle- to late-Holocene storminess in Brittany (NW France): Part II – The chronology of events and climate forcing},
  journal = {The Holocene },
  publisher = {SAGE Publications},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {24 },
  number = {4 },
  pages = {434--453},
  url = {http://hol.sagepub.com/content/24/4/434.abstract},
  doi = {10.1177/0959683613519688}
}
Vey S, Dietrich R, Fritsche M, R??lke A, Steigenberger P and Rothacher M (2009), "On the homogeneity and interpretation of precipitable water time series derived from global GPS observations", Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. Vol. 114(10) Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: Observations of the Global Positioning System (GPS) were reanalyzed$nover the period from 1994 to 2004 in a joint project of the technical$nuniversities in Dresden and Munich. The estimated tropospheric parameters$nwere converted into precipitable water (PW) using surface pressure$nobservations from the World Meteorological Organization and atmospheric$nmean temperature fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range$nWeather Forecasts. For the first time a systematic study of the homogeneity$nof global GPS-derived precipitable water time series was carried$nout regarding the influence of changes in the GPS antennas and radomes$nas well as changes in the number of recorded observations. The focus$nof this study is on interannual changes in precipitable water. Over$nEurope, large parts of North America, and Iceland and in the region$nsouth of 30°S, these changes are very small. The range of the PW$nvariations on interannual time scales is less than 2 mm in these$nareas. However, in the southeastern part of North America and north$nAustralia, these anomalies in precipitable water show a range of$nup to 6 mm. In the tropics, PW anomalies with a range of up to 10$nmm were found. GPS PW was compared with a modeled PW assuming water$nvapor saturation. This shows that GPS PW of stations located in the$nmiddle and high northern and southern latitudes is consistent with$nthe temperature-related saturation values of water vapor. In the$ntropics and subtropics the annual temperature variations are low.$nIn these regions the variations in the PW can be dominated by other$nfactors, including water vapor transport. At seasonal time scales$nthe water vapor transport can be associated with atmospheric circulation$nsuch as monsoonal flow.
BibTeX:
@article{Vey_2009,
  author = {Vey, S. and Dietrich, R. and Fritsche, M. and R??lke, A. and Steigenberger, Peter and Rothacher, Markus},
  title = {On the homogeneity and interpretation of precipitable water time series derived from global GPS observations},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {114},
  number = {10},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008jd010415},
  doi = {10.1029/2008JD010415}
}
Viti M, Mantovani E, Babbucci D and Tamburelli C (2011), "Plate kinematics and geodynamics in the Central Mediterranean", Journal of Geodynamics., mar, 2011. Vol. 51(2-3), pp. 190-204. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: We argue that seismotectonic activity in the Central Mediterranean area and the Aegean-Balkan zone is driven by the NNE-ward motion of Africa and westward motion of Anatolia with respect to Eurasia. These boundary conditions can plausibly and coherently account for E-W shortening and roughly S-N extension in the Aegean domain, thrusting and uplift at the boundary between the Aegean-Balkan system and the Adriatic/Ionian domain (Hellenic trench, Cephalonia fault, Epirus, Albanides and Southern Dinarides), the kinematics of the Adria plate (a large block encompassing the Adriatic continental domain, the northern Ionian zone and Hyblean-Adventure block) and consequently, the complex pattern of deformation recognized at its boundaries. Furthermore, the fact that in our scheme Adria moves almost in connection with Africa is consistent with the lack of an active decoupling zone between Adria and Africa, an evidence that can hardly be reconciled with the kinematics so far proposed for these two plates. The reasons why we adopt an Africa-Eurasia relative motion different from that implied by the popular NUVEL-1 global solution are discussed in detail. Finally, we make some considerations about the possible implications of the presently available geodetic data on the long-term plate kinematics. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Viti_2011,
  author = {Viti, M. and Mantovani, E. and Babbucci, D. and Tamburelli, C.},
  title = {Plate kinematics and geodynamics in the Central Mediterranean},
  journal = {Journal of Geodynamics},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {51},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {190--204},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2010.02.006},
  doi = {10.1016/j.jog.2010.02.006}
}
Wöppelmann G, Letetrel C, Santamaria A, Bouin MN, Collilieux X, Altamimi Z, Williams SDP and Martin Miguez B (2009), "Rates of sea-level change over the past century in a geocentric reference frame", Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 36(12) Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: The results from a carefully implemented GPS analysis, using a strategy adapted to determine accurate vertical station velocities, are presented. The stochastic properties of our globally distributed GPS position time series were inferred, allowing the computation of reliable velocity uncertainties. Most uncertainties were several times smaller than the 1–3 mm/yr global sea level change, and hence the vertical velocities could be applied to correct the long tide gauge records for land motion. The sea level trends obtained in the ITRF2005 reference frame are more consistent than in the ITRF2000 or corrected for Glacial-Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model predictions, both on the global and the regional scale, leading to a reconciled global rate of geocentric sea level rise of 1.61 ± 0.19mm/yr over the past century in good agreement with the most recent estimates.
BibTeX:
@article{Woppelmann_2009,
  author = {Wöppelmann, G. and Letetrel, C. and Santamaria, A. and Bouin, M. N. and Collilieux, X. and Altamimi, Z. and Williams, S. D P and Martin Miguez, B.},
  title = {Rates of sea-level change over the past century in a geocentric reference frame},
  journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {36},
  number = {12},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009gl038720},
  doi = {10.1029/2009GL038720}
}
Wöppelmann G, Marcos M, Coulomb A, Martn Mguez B, Bonnetain P, Boucher C, Gravelle M, Simon B and Tiphaneau P (2014), "Rescue of the historical sea level record of Marseille (France) from 1885 to 1988 and its extension back to 1849-1851", Journal of Geodesy., jun, 2014. Vol. 88(9), pp. 869-885. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@article{Woppelmann_2014,
  author = {Wöppelmann, G. and Marcos, M. and Coulomb, A. and Martn Mguez, B. and Bonnetain, P. and Boucher, C. and Gravelle, M. and Simon, B. and Tiphaneau, P.},
  title = {Rescue of the historical sea level record of Marseille (France) from 1885 to 1988 and its extension back to 1849-1851},
  journal = {Journal of Geodesy},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {88},
  number = {9},
  pages = {869--885},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00190-014-0728-6},
  doi = {10.1007/s00190-014-0728-6}
}
Walpersdorf A, Baize S, Calais E, Tregoning P and Nocquet JM (2006), "Deformation in the Jura Mountains (France): First results from semi-permanent GPS measurements", Earth and Planetary Science Letters., may, 2006. Vol. 245(1-2), pp. 365-372. Elsevier BV.
Abstract: New GPS estimates of relative motion across the Jura Mountain Belt with respect to the Eurasian Plate indicate less than 1 mm/yr of convergence, considerably less than previous estimates. Velocity uncertainties have been evaluated by several methods and range from 0.2 to 0.5 mm/yr for the semi-permanent stations. The major, statistically-significant strain feature inferred by the Jura GPS measurements is along-arc extension, compatible with tectonic studies. That the detected deformation is small in magnitude highlights two important issues: previous estimates are over-stated and that the approach of using semi-permanent GPS installations is capable of detecting small tectonic signals. Using the upper bound as the rate of convergence, we estimate that this would generate an earthquake of magnitude 5-5.5 every 15 to 75 yr. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{WALPERSDORF_2006,
  author = {Walpersdorf, Andrea and Baize, Stéphane and Calais, Eric and Tregoning, Paul and Nocquet, Jean Mathieu},
  title = {Deformation in the Jura Mountains (France): First results from semi-permanent GPS measurements},
  journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
  publisher = {Elsevier BV},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {245},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {365--372},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2006.02.037},
  doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2006.02.037}
}
Woodworth PL, Gravelle M, Marcos M, W??ppelmann G and Hughes CW (2015), "The status of measurement of the Mediterranean mean dynamic topography by geodetic techniques", Journal of Geodesy., may, 2015. Vol. 89(8), pp. 811-827. Springer Science Business Media.
BibTeX:
@article{Woodworth_2015,
  author = {Woodworth, Philip L. and Gravelle, M??d??ric and Marcos, Marta and W??ppelmann, Guy and Hughes, Chris W.},
  title = {The status of measurement of the Mediterranean mean dynamic topography by geodetic techniques},
  journal = {Journal of Geodesy},
  publisher = {Springer Science Business Media},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {89},
  number = {8},
  pages = {811--827},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00190-015-0817-1},
  doi = {10.1007/s00190-015-0817-1}
}
Wulfmeyer V, Behrendt A, Kottmeier C, Corsmeier U, Barthlott C, Craig GC, Hagen M, Althausen D, Aoshima F, Arpagaus M, Bauer HS, Bennett L, Blyth A, Brandau C, Champollion C, Crewell S, Dick G, Di Girolamo P, Dorninger M, Dufournet Y, Eigenmann R, Engelmann R, Flamant C, Foken T, Gorgas T, Grzeschik M, Handwerker J, Hauck C, H??ller H, Junkermann W, Kalthoff N, Kiemle C, Klink S, K??nig M, Krauss L, Long CN, Madonna F, Mobbs S, Neininger B, Pal S, Peters G, Pigeon G, Richard E, Rotach MW, Russchenberg H, Schwitalla T, Smith V, Steinacker R, Trentmann J, Turner DD, Van Baelen J, Vogt S, Volkert H, Weckwerth T, Wernli H, Wieser A and Wirth M (2011), "The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): The scientific strategy, the field phase, and research highlights", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., jan, 2011. Vol. 137(SUPPL. 1), pp. 3-30. Wiley-Blackwell.
Abstract: Within the framework of the international field campaign COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study), a large suite of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation was operated, partially combined for the first time. This includes networks of in situ and remote-sensing systems such as the Global Positioning System as well as a synergy of multi-wavelength passive and active remote-sensing instruments such as advanced radar and lidar systems. The COPS field phase was performed from 01 June to 31 August 2007 in a low-mountain area in southwestern Germany/eastern France covering the Vosges mountains, the Rhine valley and the Black Forest mountains. The collected data set covers the entire evolution of convective precipitation events in complex terrain from their initiation, to their development and mature phase until their decay. Eighteen Intensive Observation Periods with 37 operation days and eight additional Special Observation Periods were performed, providing a comprehensive data set covering different forcing conditions. In this article, an overview of the COPS scientific strategy, the field phase, and its first accomplishments is given. Highlights of the campaign are illustrated with several measurement examples. It is demonstrated that COPS research provides new insight into key processes leading to convection initiation and to the modification of precipitation by orography, in the improvement of quantitative precipitation forecasting by the assimilation of new observations, and in the performance of ensembles of convection-permitting models in complex terrain. Copyright © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society
BibTeX:
@article{Wulfmeyer_2011,
  author = {Wulfmeyer, Volker and Behrendt, Andreas and Kottmeier, Christoph and Corsmeier, Ulrich and Barthlott, Christian and Craig, George C. and Hagen, Martin and Althausen, Dietrich and Aoshima, Fumiko and Arpagaus, Marco and Bauer, Hans Stefan and Bennett, Lindsay and Blyth, Alan and Brandau, Christine and Champollion, C??dric and Crewell, Susanne and Dick, Galina and Di Girolamo, Paolo and Dorninger, Manfred and Dufournet, Yann and Eigenmann, Rafael and Engelmann, Ronny and Flamant, Cyrille and Foken, Thomas and Gorgas, Theresa and Grzeschik, Matthias and Handwerker, Jan and Hauck, Christian and H??ller, Hartmut and Junkermann, Wolfgang and Kalthoff, Norbert and Kiemle, Christoph and Klink, Stefan and K??nig, Marianne and Krauss, Liane and Long, Charles N. and Madonna, Fabio and Mobbs, Stephen and Neininger, Bruno and Pal, Sandip and Peters, Gerhard and Pigeon, Gr??goire and Richard, Evelyne and Rotach, Mathias W. and Russchenberg, Herman and Schwitalla, Thomas and Smith, Victoria and Steinacker, Reinhold and Trentmann, J??rg and Turner, David D. and Van Baelen, Joel and Vogt, Siegfried and Volkert, Hans and Weckwerth, Tammy and Wernli, Heini and Wieser, Andreas and Wirth, Martin},
  title = {The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): The scientific strategy, the field phase, and research highlights},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {137},
  number = {SUPPL. 1},
  pages = {3--30},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.752},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.752}
}
Yan X, Ducrocq V, Jaubert G, Brousseau P, Poli P, Champollion C, Flamant C and Boniface K (2009), "The benefit of GPS zenith delay assimilation to high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts: A case-study from COPS IOP 9", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., oct, 2009. Vol. 135(644), pp. 1788-1800. Wiley-Blackwell.
BibTeX:
@article{YanDucrocqJaubertEtAl2009,
  author = {Yan, X. and Ducrocq, V. and Jaubert, G. and Brousseau, P. and Poli, P. and Champollion, C. and Flamant, C. and Boniface, K.},
  title = {The benefit of GPS zenith delay assimilation to high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts: A case-study from COPS IOP 9},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {135},
  number = {644},
  pages = {1788--1800},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.508},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.508}
}
Yan X, Ducrocq V, Jaubert G, Brousseau P, Poli P, Champollion C, Flamant C and Boniface K (2009), "The benefit of GPS zenith delay assimilation to high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts: A case-study from COPS IOP 9", Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society., oct, 2009. Vol. 135(644), pp. 1788-1800. Wiley-Blackwell.
BibTeX:
@article{YanDucrocqJaubertEtAl2009a,
  author = {Yan, X. and Ducrocq, V. and Jaubert, G. and Brousseau, P. and Poli, P. and Champollion, C. and Flamant, C. and Boniface, K.},
  title = {The benefit of GPS zenith delay assimilation to high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts: A case-study from COPS IOP 9},
  journal = {Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {135},
  number = {644},
  pages = {1788--1800},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qj.508},
  doi = {10.1002/qj.508}
}
Yan X, Ducrocq V, Poli P, Hakam M, Jaubert G and Walpersdorf A (2009), "Impact of GPS zenith delay assimilation on convective-scale prediction of Mediterranean heavy rainfall", Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres., feb, 2009. Vol. 114(3) Wiley-Blackwell.
BibTeX:
@article{Yan_2009,
  author = {Yan, X. and Ducrocq, V. and Poli, P. and Hakam, M. and Jaubert, G. and Walpersdorf, A.},
  title = {Impact of GPS zenith delay assimilation on convective-scale prediction of Mediterranean heavy rainfall},
  journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres},
  publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {114},
  number = {3},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008jd011036},
  doi = {10.1029/2008JD011036}
}